Brett Volume 10: Chapter LXVIII - Hastings 1862

From Historical Hastings

Transcriber’s note

Chapter LXVIII Hastings 1862

Accidents and Fatalities (pg. 1)
Town Council meetings (The harbour contention)
Town council Transactions
(Great excitement)
Concerts-and Public Entertainments – Special Dinners, Suppers, etc.
Public Funerals
The Lancashire Distress (For the relief of Lancashire)
The Local Collections
Schools and School Treats
A new Ragged School Building proposed
The Ragged School
The Ragged School Bazaar
The Fishery
The Drowning of Nine Fishermen
The Fishery Vicissitudes
"Sympathy for the Afflicted”
Accidental Fires
The Autumn Flower Show
Hastings at the Exhibition
Sudden deaths and Inquests
Lectures at Hastings – “The Millennial Rest" by Rev. Dr. Cumming
Dr. Cumming's Lectures
Lectures at Hastings
Maritime Casualties
Miscellaneous Items
The Town Council not what it ought to be
Municipal Matters
Waldegrave Fountain
Our Volunteer Soldiers
Poor rates
Workmen's treats
Philosophical Society
The Regatta and other events
The Queens Hotel
Special Sermons
Hastings Mechanics' Institution.

[ iv ]

Brett's Manuscript History - Volume Ten

1862-1864

Chapter Sixty Eight: Hastings 1862 Page 1

Accidents and Fatalities - Town Council meetings (The harbour contention) - Town council Transactions - (Great excitement) - Concerts and Public Entertainments - Special Dinners, Suppers, etc. - Public Funerals - The Lancashire Distress (For the relief of Lancashire) - The Local Collections - Schools and School Treats A new Ragged School Building proposed - The Ragged School - The Ragged School Bazaar - The Fishery - The Drowning of Nine Fishermen — The Fishery Vicissitudes - "Sympathy for the Afflicted" - Accidental Fires - The Autumn Flower Show - Hastings at the Exhibition - Sudden deaths and Inquests - Lectures at Hastings - "The Millennial Rest" by Rev. Dr. Cumming - Dr.Cumming's Lectures - Lectures at Hastings - Maritime Casualties - Miscellaneous Items - The Town Council not what it ought to be - Municipal Matters - Waldegrave Fountain - Our Volunteer Soldiers - Poor rates - Workmen's treats - Philosophical Society - The Regatta and other events - The Queen's Hotel - Special Sermons - Hastings Mechanics' Institution.

Chapter Sixty Nine: St. Leonards 1863 Page 65

St.Leonards Commissioners’ Meetings - The West Hill road - Vestry Meetings - Accidents and Fatalities- Balls, etc. - The Borough Assessment - Archery Meetings - The Archery Prize Meeting - The Artillery Band - The Bonfire Boys - Concerts and Musical Entertainments ~ The Cottage Building Company - Church and Chapel] News - Particular Deaths - Funeral Obsequies - The Cripples Home - Drapers' Recreation - Horticultural Society - Harvest Homes - Harvest Homes and Thanksgiving - Coroner's Inquests - Improvements - A new Galley - A St.Leonards Guide Book - Lectures - Letter Press Music - Musical Taste - Lost and Found "Magnificent Liberality" -"The Biter Bit'- Building Operations - Rearing Suppers - The St.Leonards Mechanics Institution - Fashionable Marriages - Presentations and Picnics - Royal Visitors - Robberies - Special Sermons - School Treats - Evening Schools - Sale of Property - St. Leonards Caves - Abnormal Fish - Storms and Atmospheric Phenomena - Earthquakes and Predictions - Earthquakes and fulfilled Predictions - The Weather and its Prophets - A Little Trip to Netherfield - The Temperance Propaganda - Thunderstorms and Fatalities -A Turkish Bath Company - Chevy-Chase - Terrific Storms, locally and generally - A Week's Storms and much damage - A Breach in the Wall - Miscellaneous Occurrences.

Chapter Seventy: Hastings 1863 Page 121

Accidents at Hastings - Fashionable Balls - Concerts - Wonderful Discovery of Gold - Entertainments - Fire Alarms - The Fishery - Forresters' Fete - Lectures - The LetterH and its Friends - Mnemonics Entertainments - Municipal Matters - Maritime Casualties - Weather Predictions - A Promenade Pier - The Volunteers and the Brighton Review - Volunteer Review at Hastings - Artillery Inspection - Volunteer Prize Meeting - Town Council Meetings - Agitation for a Central Ward - Council Meeting. Re-division of Wards - Election of Mayor - The Queen's Hotel - Workmen's Treats - Workingmens Clubs.
A Dutchman on the Mayor's Dinner - Quarter Sessions - The Royal Marriage
[ 1 ]

Accidents and Fatalities

A child killed On the 29th of December (1861), Robert Kent, a child about 7 years of age was seen to have fallen upon him a pole from a timber-tug, just by the Watch-house Bank, and when picked up, he neither cried or spoke. A surgeon was quickly in attendance, but the child died within quite a short time.

Smash and Death. The loss of a pony and the smashing of a plate-glass front was the result of an accident which occurred on Friday, Feb. 28th, in George street. A runaway pony, together with a cart, belonging to a young man of the name of Barnes, got into contact with a shop front lately in the occupation of Mr. John Bevins, whereby the glass and several articles in the window were broken, and the animal so seriously injured as render it necessary to deprive it of life. The damage and loss was estimated at about £40.

A Serious Accident occurred to John Rollinson, a carter to Mr. Neve, of Ore, on the 15th of March. He had mounted a horse's back, side-saddle fashion, and when near Salter's Lane, fell backwards upon his head. He was removed to a house in a senseless state. He was afterwards conveyed to his home, and ultimately recovered.

Another Pony and Cart Accident. On Tuesday, March 18th, 1933-1935a pony took fright in Eversfield place, and ran towards Claremont at a rapid pace. Its career was stopped by the contact of the vehicle to which is was attached to a house in Trinity street. The gentleman in charge was thrown out, but was comparatively unhurt, whilst his carriage was smashed and the pony greatly injured.

A Gentleman named Ware, on the evening of March 24th, had a serious fall, on leaving the Music Hall, after Mr. Butler's reading, which rendered him for a time unconscious. He was immediately attended by Mr. J. C. Savery, but his advanced age and shock to the system were likely to retard his recovery.

Fortunate Escapes.-On the 24th of April, some lady-visitors were being conveyed in a hired carriage to Hollington, when the fore part of the vehicle separated from the other portion, but the ladies were more frightened than hurt. On the 26th, two days later, as a gentleman's carriage was descending the Old London road, near Halton House, the horse ran away, and getting in contact with another carriage, both vehicles were upset and broken; yet, strange to say, although there were eleven persons in and upon the two carriages, no one was seriously hurt. Another two days passed, when a horse-truck laden with timber, was drawn at a rapid pace by a run-a-way animal down High street, through the Fishmarket (dispersing a crowd of fighting men) and up through Bourn street, where, at length, the horse was stopped without having sustained any damage.

The Evil Effects of Drink were exhibited on the 9th of May, when a young man, while walking through Robertson street, was accosted by another young man who had just emerged in a state of intoxication from a public house. Some scuffling took place, and the drunken man fell backwards, his head coming in contact with the pavement with sufficient force to cause an immense hemorrhage(sic).[ 2 ]The poor fellow was taken to the Infirmary where he continued for a considerable time in a precarious and almost hopeless state.

Fatal Accident On the 24th of June, a man of the name of Burt, while assisting in gathering up the last load of hay on the West Hill, was thrown off the waggon by a sudden movement of the horse. A serious injury was inflicted on the head and spine of the unfortunate man, who was taken to the Infirmary, but died on the following day.

A Gun Accident of a serious nature occurred at Battle on the evening of the 11th of July, by which an alarming injury was inflicted on a little girl, 8 years of age. The child thus injured was the daughter of Mr. T. S. Hide, assistant Town Clerk of Hastings. A son of Mr. Matthis, about 7 years of age, having been enquired for the little girl bounded out of the room, saying "I'll find Freddy for you" and immediately encountered the charge of a gun by the undesigning "Freddy", who it was supposed had taken up the weapon from some place, where an older member had inadvertently left it. On rushing to the spot, Mr. Mathis found the poor child on the ground with her neck, chest and face blackened with powder and covered with blood. The cuticle of the face had been penetrated by the grains of powder and on the left side of the neck were two frightful wounds of almost a finger's length. Two Battle surgeons were quickly in attendance, and soon after another surgeon from Hastings, together with the child's father appeared on the scene. The child's sufferings were great, and for two or three days, her life was despaired of.

Numerous Accidents occurred during the week which ended on the 23rd of August. Besides the case of poor Hilder, the flyman, described in the preceding chapter, there were the following:- A gentleman fractured a leg by slipping down a bank at the Dripping Well. A carter of the name of Horace Quaife, whilst endeavouring to stop a run-away horse, was thrown down, and so much injured, that he afterwards died in the Infirmary. Mr. Sparks, of Mercatoria, was seriously injured by falling from a window, and a lad named Page, fell out of a boat off Hastings, and was rescued from drowning by two fishermen.

Horse Accidents would make up a tolerably long catalogue of casualties during a year; yet, are they thought but little of in comparison of railway accidents. Two of such casualties are described above, one of them having proved fatal to human life. Three others took place within a few days afterwards. A horse belonging to Mr. West, received a fright in Havelock road on the 27th of August, and after galloping at full speed into Castle street, overturned the van to which it was harnessed, and caused considerable damage to both the van and a carriage with which it collided. The latter having been changed by the owner for another, the substituted carriage was also run away with by the horse to which it was attached. The third horse accident was of a more serious character, but as occurring in St. Leonards, is [ 3 ]described in the preceding chapter (Vol. 9).

Guestling Fatalities In the second or third week of September, Edward Woodhams, a youth of 14 years, was accidentally injured by a cart-wheel, and died in consequence. The accident occurred at Guestling, where, also a huckster, named Harry Roberts died through the upsetting of a cart.

Julia Brazier, a girl of two years living at Waterloo Passage, Hastings, caught fire through her crinoline while lacing up her brother's boots, and was so burnt that she died on the following day.

Two Horses, going in different directions on Monday, the 6th of October, carried each a lady more swift that was their duty, the consequence of which was that one of the fair equestrians was thrown and considerably hurt.

Mr. Anthony Bishop, a Hastings gentleman, living at Guestling was thrown out of his chaise through a collision in High street, with a four-horse waggon, carelessly driven. Mr. Bishop was injured and his chaise was damaged. This occurred on Monday, October 20th.

A Novel Jubilee

On the 22nd of June, Mr. John Brice, a well-known denizen of Hastings completed his 50th yar of servitude as butler to Mrs. Bruce, of Wellington square, and on the following (Monday) morning, the bells of St. Clement's church rang out a merry peal in celebration of the event.

Bronze Coinage

The new coinage, to the extent of £50, in exchange for the old copper pence and halfpence was obtained at the Custom House on Monday, the 10th of February. The supply of the new money being somewhat limited, it was announced that the money-changer would be in attendance only twice a week, instead of thrice, as first intended.

Bottle Mystery

On Sunday, July 20th, a bottle, containing a leaf, apparently torn from a pocket-book was picked up on the Hastings beach by a fish-monger of the name of Jennings. The leaf had a printed date, Sept. 9th, 1861, and upon it was written..."I am Ann Hook, who threw this bottle in the sea, in hopes of it being found sooner or later. I did it when I was in trouble and my body is in the briny ocean."

Union House Matters

At their meeting, on July 10th, the Board of Guardians, received a communication from the poor law Board, authorising the election of an additional guardian for the parish of St. Mary Magdalen; thus in compliance with the request of the parishioners at a vestry meeting f March-20th, and as against the opposition of the guardians of some of the other parishes.
At the same meeting was received a sanction for the erection of sick and fever Wards agreeably to plan, and an intimation that the poor law Inspector, in his recent visit had found the Union house kept in a satisfactory 
[ 4 ]state. Another associative item is that the Union-house girls, accompanied by their matron and school-mistress, were treated to an excursion to Icklesham and Winchelsea, refreshments being amply provided for them.

Town Council Meetings

Police Matters. At the Council's first meeting of the year (Jan. 3rd), a communication was received from Sir George Grey, the Secretary of State certifying the efficiency of the Police force.

A New Station. At the May monthly meeting, Mr. Gausden said it was nearly a year since the necessity of a police station in the western part of the borough was brought under notice by the Government Inspector, and it was eight months since an order was made that the ground should be purchased from Mr. Burton. The whole expense, putting the estimate of land and building together would require only a twopenny rate, and he would move that the Surveyor be instructed to get out plans, sections and estimates for the new police stations. Coun. Bromley questioned if the same neccessity existed as when the Council passed the vote. His own impresion was that the borough was going on remarkably well, and when he heard so much about the efficiency of the police and the absence of business at the Quarter Sessions, it appeared to him that there was no necessity for going into the proposed expense. The Town Clerk remrked that when the Government Inspector was here, he asked how soon the west police station was going to be built, and wanted to know the cause of delay, as he had reported to the Government that such was wanted, and that the Council were about to build it. Coun. Putland observed that the whole subject had been gone into at the Council meeting when it was discussed, and he thought that they were fully convinced that from the increasing population and value of property westward there was really want of a police station there. Coun. Howell said that even if the new station were useless, it must be had if only on account of the opposition to the town having more central offices and a more central police station. While members of the Council insisted on the business being conducted at the extreme end of the town they must expect a waste of the ratepayer's money. Coun. Gausden was sorry Mr. Bromley had questioned the necessity of the building, and submitted that gentlemen residing in the west were the best judges of the wants of the west. It was not likely they would ask the borough to spend £900, two-thirds of which the West Ward would have to pay, unless they were thoroughly convinced there was a necessity for it. The Mayor observed that, as a magistrate, he could bear witness to how much the new station was wanted. Ald. Ticehurst could also offer similar testimony. Mr. Gausden's motion was carried by 9 to 5.

Alteration of Gaol. At the same meeting (May 2nd), an alteration of the old gaol, according to plans drawn by the Surveyor, received the attention of the Council, and, upon the motion of Mr. Winter, seconded by Mr. Bromley it was re[ 5 ]solved to apply to the Secretary of State for permission to carry out the plan, so that the gaol (then only used as a lockup) might be again used for the detention of prisoners, whereby a saving of from two to three hundred pounds a year might be effected.

The Harbour Question was discussed at the January meeting, and somewhat warmly. The Clerk intimated that although it was a private matter, promoted by those who signed the memorial to the Board of Trade, he thought the Council might wish to appoint a committee to watch the proceedings in the interest of the town. The schedule of tolls had been advertised, and it there were any objections to the provisional order, they must be made before the 31st of January. His own name appeared as solicitor to the promoters, but if it was thought he could not thus act and be their solicitor too, he would withdraw. Messrs. Gausden, Poole and Bromley expressed themselves opposed to the project; but Mr. Putland was in favour of the schoeme, and said he looked upon it as likely to keep up the trade in the old part of Hastings. Messrs. Duke and Vidler were also in favour of the project. Ultimately, on the motion of Mr. Gausden, a committee was appointed, consisting of Messrs Jenner, Clement, How, Duke, Picknell, Gausden, Winter, Vidler and Neve. This committee met on the 14th, 17th and 20th of January, and at a special Council meeting on the 24th the committee recommended to forward in writing a statement bearing the Corporation seal the following suggested alterations:-

1st. - That no power be given to the company to levy tolls and dues until the works are made available as a Harbour.
2nd. - That in the 4th clause of the Order, being the "limits of the Order", the parish of St. Leonards be inserted with the other parishes.
3rd. - That in the 32nd clause, giving the company power to appoint meters and weighers. "Coal Meters" shall be excepted, as they now are, and always should be appointed by the Hastings Local Board.

That the following addition be made to clause 34, which gives power for the Corporation to purchase works, viz - "It being declared that the Council should have no power in the event of such transfer, to rate or otherwise involve the Borough of Hastings for construction, maintenance and support of the said Pier and Harbour and other works."

In the schedule of Tolls, the Committee recommended the following alterations and additions:- Schedule i.- Instead of charging for every vessel using the harbour according to the respective burdens, a toll should be levied upon every vessel using the Pier or Harbour for refuge according to registered tonnage at 6d. per ton., and for every vessel loading or unloading, 9d per ton. That the toll for slates should be 6d per ton, instead of a toll at per thousand. - Coun. Winter proposed the adoption of the report, remarking that after what had taken place at the meeting last week, it would, he thought, be useless to repeat any argument in opposition to the scheme. It had been attempted to prove in committee that those arguments were sound, but they were overridden, and a [ 6 ]resolution was carried to the effect that the harbour would be a benefit to the town. It might be the last time he should oppose the scheme in his public capacity, although he should feel quite at liberty to oppose it as a private individual. He thought it had not been properly considered by the town. He had made a calculation to show what bases the proposed harbour had got as a paying speculation. Last year 272 vessels landed on our beach, having a registered tonnage of about 24,000 tons, and a burden of 31,000 tons. According to the average of 9d. per ton, that would realize £1,180. The next source of revenue was a duty on coals of 3d. per ton. He found that last year, only 28,000 tons of coal were landed on the beach, and a revenue of £350 would be obtained from that quantity. It left 3,000 tons unaccounted for, and that quantity would be made up by timber, stone and other articles which were subject to dues. Putting that at the same rate as the coals, it would realise £37 10., and the gross total would be about £1,570; and yet in clause 10 of the provisional order, there was power to raise upon the credit of the dues of the harbour a sum of £40,000 at 5 per cent. This interest, Coun. Winter endeavoured to show could not be realized either by the present or prospective amount of receipts. He then referred to Hastings as a fishing town in 1730, with 1,636 inhabitants and its then population of 23,000 as a fashionable watering place. But, supposing the harbour were constructed and the town became changed from a fashionable resort to a commercial port? Such had been the case at Southampton, where the value of the property in the fashionable part had decreased 30 per cent. If they considered the value of property in this town were depreciated even 25 per cent, what would be the effect of the owners? There was property in Pelham place and its neighbourhood expressly built for lodging-houses, and if the prognostications of those, who were opposed to the harbour were realised, the matter would be a most serious one to the owners of that property, for their interest would be entirely seized before the mortgage or the ground rent was affected. in 1821[1820] the building of the large houses to which he alluded commenced, and from that time they might date the commencement of their prosperity; and therefore he would adjure the Council in its private capacity- for he thought it was out of their hands as a public body to consider the interest and welfare of the town, and endeavour to prevent anything injuring it. In conclusion, Mr. Winter thanked the meeting for the attention that had been given him and moved the adoption of the report. [Mr. Winter might have added that a thousand pounds had been subscribed by the owners of Pelham place and Pelham crescent for the removal of the ship-building premises on which is now the site of the Russian Gun ]. Coun. Gausden, in seconding the resolution, said he wished it to be distinctly understood that although the committee had adopted the report, other resolutions were brought forward; [ 7 ]but the gentlemen opposing the harbour felt themselves placed in a delicate position, and therefore had no wish to do what might be considered unfair and ungentlemanly towards the other members of the committee. It was the view of the committee that one clause should be struck out, because although Mr. Winter felt thy were bound to adhere to a resolution passed a short time since giving their moral support to the scheme, he had yet to learn what that moral support meant. He took it that they could give their moral support while they had no figures to show that it was a paying concern. It had been asserted that three fourths of the inhabitants were in favour of a harbour. It was much easier to make an assertion than to substantiate it; and upon such an important occasion he hoped that those who opposed the harbour would not rest on that statement.He was sure that if they were in a minority they would bow the the majority; but he would ask that they might have an opportunity of discussing the question out of doors. While on that part of the question he would allude to a memorial which he had to present from a great number of the ladies of Hastings [Laughter]. In the present day they heard a great deal about morality; and the ladies who presented the memorial had regarded the matter from a moral point of view. Although the ladies might be smiled at, he could say that those who signed the memorial were well known and highly respected inhabitants and who had very much favoured the town. After condemning the 34th clause of the provisional order, Mr. Gausden expressed his concurrence with Mr. Winter's views as to the injury the town was likely to sustain by the construction of a harbour. In the provisional order power was taken to construct the harbour, but there was nothing to compel the parties to keep it in a proper condition. He thought they should look very carefully at that clause; for, supposing that it was not a paying concern, Hastings would not allow the town to get into dilapidation, and would therefore have to pay to keep the harbour up.

Ald. Ginner observed that there were somethings connected with the scheme which appeared to him of a very novel character. In the first place, it had been very unseemly carried forward. They might say his judgment was a very harsh one, but no man had attempted to show that the harour, when built, would have any mercantile value. Mr. Winter had gone into that question and had shown that there could be no interest to the shareholders. He, himself, had a very important matter to bring before the meeting. It was a somewhat personal one, and he therefore wished to introduce it with the greatest delicacy. It was said that six of the gentlemen whose names appeared as promoters had no real interest in the affair and were mere myths. He would ask the Mayor [Mr. Ross] as one of the six gentlemen, whether he had any responsibility in [ 8 ]connection with the scheme? [The Mayor "I think that a most bold question, and I shall not think of answering it".] Mr. Ginner put the same question to Mr. Rook, who replied that it was a most improper question, and he should also decline to answer it. Ald. Ginner, continuing, said he thought that gentlemen who advocated new schemes generally put forth their names and announced that the work would cost so much, and that so many thousand shares had been taken up. And therefore, as those gentlemen would not answer his question, he concluded that the first six names - four Aldermen and two Councillors were myths, so far as the harbour was concerned. Ald Rock said he could not see what the names had to do with the question before the meeting, which was whether they should adopt the report of the Committee. In resuming, Ald. Ginner said he thought they were not all bound by that meeting. He remembered that at the meeting when Capt. Sleigh came down, a non-ratepayer seconded the motion in favour of a scheme which was as wild a one as could possibly be. That scheme was taken up by the same gentlemen whose names they saw before them; and he was very sorry that they should think fit to lend their names to two gentlemen who were strangers to them. He should take every opportunity to oppose the scheme both in his public and private capacity.

Coun. Vidler explained the grounds on which he advocated the harbour. He had a house in Eversfield place and two houses in St. Mary-in-the-Castle, and he was perfectly satisfied in his own mind that his property would not be injured by a harbour. It would benefit the parishes of St. Clement's and All Saints, and it would place those houses which Mr. Winter had spoken of in a much better situation. [Like Mr. Vidler, MR. Bromley had a house in Eversfield place, but unlike Mr. Vidler, he did not believe the town would be benefited by a harbour, and he would oppose it with all his might.] Coun. Picknell, as an old inhabitant, had always been in favour of a harbour. They had one of the finest fishing grounds, but three fourths of the boats were unable to put to sea in the winter-time, which would not be the case if they had a harbour. The coal vessels would also be protected, and coals would be half a crown cheaper. [As an "old inhabitant" (like the writer), Mr. Picknell should have known that the fishermen's difficulty during the winter gales was not so much getting to sea as the keeping at sea, and in which latter trouble a harbour would be of no assistance. He should also have recollected that coal vessels, with their freight from the north had been many times been kept back by adverse winds for several weeks in succession, and in which condition also a harbour could have afforded no relief.] Coun. Kenwood said he was one of those to whom Mr. Picknell had alluded as a piler up of bricks and mortar, and [ 9 ]he wanted to continue doing so; but he did not think a harbour would assist him. Seeing, however, influential names connected with the scheme, he would ask them if they thought it would pay? The Mayor said that question could not be gone into. Coun. Kenwood contended that he had a right to ask that question, as his vote might be influenced by the answer. He had, that day, come from London with a gentleman who told him that the harbour had ruined Dover by driving away its regular visitors, and that he was sure it would be an unfortunate thing for Hastings to have a harbour constructed. He (Mr. K.) should feel it his duty to oppose what he believed to be a mad scheme, and one which he believed was not intended to be carried by the originators themselves. It appeared to him to be brought forward to make office work (Hear, hear!). Ald. Rock said the question as to whether the harbour would be a paying concern was not for the consideration of the Council. [Yes, yes! No, no! and great confusion]. The subject had been discussed and the Council had agreed to give it its moral support. The promoters expected to receive that moral support; but he must say that the moral support of that Council was a strange thing [Laughter]. He could only say for himself that he did not intend it to be a mere myth in connection with the scheme. He hoped that it would be looked at as a matter of business; and if they did so, he thought they would be doing great service to the town. Coun. Putland also did not consider himself a myth in the matter. If the project was supported as he hoped it would be, he was prepared to run the risk whether there was any return or not. Whether it paid one per cent. or five per cent. could only concern the subscribers. Alluding to some remarks that were made at the public meeting, and after combatting some of the objections, Mr. Putland said he considered that when anything of so much importance as the present object was brought before that council there ought to be a most searching investigation; but he thought that the impertinent questions that had been put that day were beside the mark. [Some other members regarded Mr. Putland's last two sentences as anomalous and contradictory] Coun. Howell believed a harbour would benefit the town to more than three times its income. At present the freight of coals was 9s. at Hastings and only 7/- at Newhaven; and after making some other comparisons, concluded by saying that the scheme under consideration would benefit without doing harm, and therefore deserved the support of the town. - Coun. Bromley said he was determined to give all the opposition he could to a harbour; for, as an inhabitant of 20 years standing, he could say unhesitatingly that he believed nothing would inflict so great an injury even on the old town than a harbour. He denied that the expression of opinion at the public meeting [where many persons were non-ratepayers] could be taken [ 10 ]as the general opinion of the town. It was like what they sometimes observed at elections, where there was a large show of hands on one side and a majority on the other at the polling. He maintained that even if he did not spend one halfpenny upon the scheme, he had a perfect right to oppose it if he believed it would be a nuisance to the place, notwithstanding Mr. Putland's assertion that it only concerned the subscribers. Ald. Clement said it appeared that a great many persons were dissatisfied with the 34th clause, and he should be glad to see it erased; for he felt certain there would be no profit arising out of the scheme, but only a loss. - Coun. Winter replied to the remarks of previous speakers, and his motion being put to the vote was carried by 11 to 6 [A noticeable circumstance of this debate was that all the speakers were Liberals, and that although on most questions they voted together as one man, yet on this harbour proposal they were strongly opposed to each other. Mr. Kenwood, a successful builder was opposed to a harbour, whilst Mr. Howell, also a successful builder, was as strongly in favour of it, notwithstanding that he had also for an opponent, MR. Clement, who had many times supplied him with the "ways and means" for his commercial speculations, with probably mutual advantages. Mr. Vidler, who had a house in Eversfield place, was not afraid of the depreciation by the construction of a harbour, whilst Mr. Bromley, who had a house at the same place, was certain of a contrary effect. Mr. Putland, a coal merchant was a strenuous advocate of the harbour, and Mr. Ginner, also a coal merchant was a determined opponent of it. Messrs. Vidler, Ross, Howell and Picknell, whose personal and commercial interests lay in the western parishes, stated that their belief that the harbour would especially benefit the old parishes of St. Clement's and All Saints, whilst Messrs. Winter, Bromley and Ginner, whose residences and commercial interest lay in those parishes, were the most effective speakers against the project. There were some other peculiarities of the debate, one of which was that of the promoters voting, contrary to the Local Act, for a scheme in which they did not intend to be mere myths. But we must proceed.] The Town Clerk read a letter from Messrs. Manning and Walker applying for a lease of land, together with the rights of the Corporation thereon for 999 years whereon to construct a pier and harbour. - Ald. Ginner said he did not wish to be again called impertinent; but he presumed those gentlemen required the ground extending from the Pier Rocks to the East Groyne, and he should like to know if the Corporation Act gave them power to let it. The Town Clerk said they had only power to lease the Corporation land for a period of 30 years. If they wished to exceed that term they must apply to her Majesty's Commissioners. Ald Ginner the protested against the application being entertained, and said the promoters ought to proceed in a straight-forward way by getting an Act [ 11 ]of Parliament before they came to them for the land. Mr. Beecham, who attended on behalf of the applications, explained that the Board of Trade would not entertain their application unless before the 31st of the month they could show that they could acquire the necessary land. Mr. Powell moved that the promoters be informed that the Council would let the land at a fair rental, which motion being seconded by Coun. Picknell. Mr. Gausden, moved as an amendment that the application be defended till the next monthly meeting. This was seconded by Coun. Kenwood; but was lost by a majority of one. Coun. Gausden, then presented a petition against the harbour, numerously signed by ladies and stated that there would have been many more signatures, but for the shortness of time. Resolutions were passed that the memorial be entered on the minutes and advertised in all the local papers.

The latter was not done, the St. Leonards & Hastings Gazette, which (as shewn by its leading articles), laboured equally for the good of both towns, being in this instance, as in all others, unrecognised.

At the next meeting (Feby. 7th) a motion was made and carried that the promoters having agreed to the alterations proposed at the last meeting, the Council certify in writing under the common seals, that the objections offered by them, had been explained and ratified.

"To be or not to be; that is the question?" said the Town Crier, as he announced a proposed decision on the harbour question by the Town Council. Such an unusual proclamation naturally attracted a considerable number of persons to witness the proceedings of the municipal body on that occasion, and who, no doubt, were interested, if not amused by the animated session which then and there took place. The following is a condensed report:-

Coun. Gausden, having requested the Town Clerk to read over the resolutions passed at a previous meeting, said if he was right in his conception, the point on which he brought the subject forward affected the business and transactions of the Council, and therefore he wished to say that he had no intention of impugning the motives of The Mayor, the Town-Clerk, or any other official. He had to treat it as a matter of business, and as such he brought it before them. Mr. G. then, in a temperate address, entered his protest against the resolutions in question as being opposed to the spirit and letter of an Act of Parliament which he cited. In the course of that address, he observed that they all knew how necessary it wsa that resolutions passed at their meetings should be properly done. He took it that if any resolution was passed in that Council contrary to Act of Parliament, such resolution was passed illegally and could not be in force. The Act [ 12 ]of Parliament to which he referred was "The Municipal Act further Ammendment(sic) Act" 5 to 6 Vict.cap. 104, 10th of Aug, 1842. . . "And be it enacted that it shall not be lawful for any member of the Council of any borough to vote or take part in the discussion of any matter before the Council in which such member shall, directly or indirectly, by himself or his partner or partners, have any pecuniary interest". Mr. Gausden had reason to believe the Act was still in force, and therefore each resolution which had been passed and any discussion by those members of the Council who were interested in the scheme were illegal; he protested against any further act being done in the matter by the Council. He might have allowed it to go on till the house met on the subject, and, no doubt, parties could have taken a legal objection; but he had thought it only fair to bring it before the Council for them to discuss the matter. The Mayor (Mr. Ross) said that so far as he was concerned, rather than Mr. Gausden should carry out his plan he would give up office altogether. He was determined that he would not hold office, if by doing so, he placed an obstacle in the way of the harbour. Coun. Howell would assume those gentlemen who opposed what was carried at a town's meeting that if that was the course they intended to pursue, they would know what to do with them the next time they asked to be returned the Council. He should like to know whether they meant to accuse the six gentlemen of coming there with mercenary motives. If they meant to bring forward such accusations they should do it as the ought to do; he protested against the attempt to thwart the decision of a town meeting by a side wind. Coun. Kenwood reminded the Council that Mr. Gausden had brought the subject forward to give them time to consider it. Coun. Duke said there was no motion before the meeting. Coun. Gausden asked a question and was impetuously told by the Mayor that he had spoken since. Coun. Bromley contended for Mr. Gausden's right to ask a question or to give an explanation. Coun Picknell thought they had better proceed to the next business. Ald. Ginner, amidst the wildest confusion, expressed his desire to speak temperately on the subject, but, being interrupted by Coun. Putland, said he would conclude with a motion. He was not aware that there was such an important clause s that which hd been read, and he considered it to be a very serious matter for the Council. He regretted that the Town Clerk had not sufficiently read up the Municipal Act, so as to prevent an illegal course being adopted. Mr. Howell might call it a side wind or anything else he pleased, but there was a possitive(sic) clause in the Act of Parliament, and gentlemen who came there to carry out that Act must do so, and not simply act upon their own view. He would move that an explanation under the seal of that Council as to how the resolution was passed be sent to the Board of [ 13 ]Trade. Councillor Kenwood seconded. Coun. Howell said the project was progressing better than the objectors thought it would, and finding that they could not defeat it publicly, they endeavoured to do it by a side wind, and had raked up the Act of Parliament for that purpose. He hoped the Council would have the moral courage to sustain their former acts. [This speaker was not told by the Mayor that he had spoken before] Coun. Winter said there was something much larger at stake than the harbour question, howsoever important that might be; and if two or three gentlemen had done wrong, they ought to take kindly any effort intended to put them right, and cause them to act as the law directed. He did not think Mr. Gausden deserved the severe animadversions which Mr. Howell threw upon him. Coun. Gausden, in reply, said it was not the first time Mr. Howell had endeavoured to put him down by bullying [Hear, hear!], but he was one of the last men in the town to be put down in that way. He maintained that he had a perfect right to bring the subject forward, and as to the "side wind" accusation, he considered it an absurdity. Then as to the threat that some day, when he came before the town he should be thrown out of office, he was willing to stand up on his own acts, and if what he did was not satifactory to the town, he should also be willing that another person should be put in his place; but he was not going to be ruled by Mr. Howell. He came there to do his duty, and so long as he saw anything which he thought was not in accordance with the Act of Parliament, he should take an objection to it. Ald. Ticehurst observed that if they had done an illegal act, let them suffer for it, and let the town know who the gentlemen were who tried to upset the harbour project. The ladies, too had taken up the subject, and appeared to be afraid that the morality of the town was to suffer. He thought the ladies had better keep in their own places. Ald. Rock was sory that such an acrimonious discussion had taken place, and he must say that the manner in which Mr. Gausden had introduced it did not call for such a display. But, at the same time, it was the result of his act, and therefore, so far, it rested with him. Ald. Ginner presumed that those gentlemen who had already done what was considered to be an illegal act woud not seek to confirm that act by further illegality. [Hear, hear! and derisive laughter]. He merely wished to bring out the broad facts of the case. No doubt they would attempt to shield themselves by putting on two cloaks instead of one. As they urged him to bring forward a motion, he should test the Council upon the subject. Coun. Gausden again protested against the illegal voting of certain members, but they nevertheless persisted in voting against Mr. Ginner's motion, with a result of 11 against 9. This was followed by the exclamation of "Bravo, Rouse!" from Coun. Picknell, and loud cheers from the harbour promoters generally. [For a poetic effusion on this meeting [ 14 ]see "Wars of the Gods" pp. 169 to 173, Vol. 9

Purchase of a Rope Shop. A rope-shop having been purchased by the Town Clerk for £38, agreeably to the instructions of the Stonebeach Committee, for the purpose of widening the thoroughfare, the act was demurred to the January meeting by Coun. Wingfield, but approved by all the other members, and the Clerk's report adopted.

General District Rate. At the same meeting (Jan 3rd) a general district rate at 9d. in the £, to realize £3,300, was agreed to, and confirmed at the next meeting.

Borough Rate. At the meeting on the 7th of March, a Borough rate at four pence in the pound, to realize £1,754, was proposed and consented to.

Building Plans. At the January meeting the following plans were approved of:- Two houses in Church road for Mr. Picknell; four houses in Magdalen road for Mr. Wood; house and cottage in Priory street for Mr. Pollington; and six cottages in the Tackle Way for the Cottage Improvement Society. Alteration of the 28th Bye Law. At the February meeting, it was moved and carried, agreeably to the recommendation of the Committee, that the Board make application to the Secretary of State for his sanction in the 28th bye-law relative to the deposit of plans for new buildings, giving the Board discretionary powers as to the details to be given instead of it being compulsory as theretofore. Conditionally upon such sanction being obtained, approval was given to plans for three new houses at Spittleman's Down and 11 houses in Warrior square. At the May monthly meeting plans were approved for an Industrial and Invalid's Kitchen to be founded by F. Montgomerie, Esq., in Cross street; and for the premises of the London and County Bank, in Havelock road.

Lamps At the January meeting it was ordered that lamps be placed between Cross street and Norman-road east, and that the one at Norman hotel be removed so as to throw light into the street. At the February meeting it was resolved that the position of the lamp at Mr. Breet's corner at the bottom of High street be changed so as to give a light into John street; that the lamp in the middle of John street be shifted to the corner of Mr. Stace's blacksmith's shop and be provided with a reflector; that the lamp at the Royal Standard be raised 1 foot and inclined 6 feet farther out towards East Beach street; that the lamp at Prince Albert Inn have an iron pillar; and that a new lamp be placed 36 feet below the end of Trinity terrace on the opposite side of the road.

Drainage At the meeting in January, the drainage improvement in Warrior squre were postponed till the next meeting, a sub-committee in the mean time to visit the spot and make a report. The drainage at Upper Maze hil was referred back to the committee. Drainage contracts were accepted on May 2nd as follows:- Mr. Grisbrook's at 8s. 10d per yard, lined, for connecting the drains at Verulam place and White rock; Mr. Ashton's at £25 10s. for Magdalen road; and Mr. Andrews for extra work in London road [See also next page]

The Purchase of Ashes having been recommended by the Committee [ 15 ]to receive tenders for, it was resolved at the January meeting, on the motion of Coun. Gausden, to issue notice to that effect. It was calculated that there would result from such a plan, a clear gain of £150 a year. At the February meeting this question occupied the Council a considerable time, and during a rather warm discussion, it was shewn that through a complication of accounts and erroneous data supplied to Mr. Gausden, by the Inspector of Nuisances, the former person had underestimated, by about £200, the income derived from the sale of ashes and street sweepings, and had based thereon certain gains to be effected by a different mode of collection. On the motion of Mr. Hailes, it was resolved to postpone the consideration of the tenders until the next meeting.

More Drainage Contracts. At the February meeting it was resolved that a new drain be laid down in front of Warrior square; that the Surveyor be instructed to prepare a section of the main drain, the exact fall, &c., and that the Roads Committee have power to advertise for and receive tenders for the work, the same to be submitted at the next monthly meeting. At the April meeting Mr. Grisbrook's tender of £224 for the work at Maze Hill, and Mr. Hughes's tender for that at Warrrior square, were accepted. Some drainage works at London road and Priory road were also agreed to be done.

Purchase of Land. At the January meeting it was resolved to purchase of Mr. G. Clement a piece of land from 1½ to 2½ acres in extent at the rate of £160 per acre, for the purpose of improving the Old Roar reservoir.

Fire Insurances. At the Council meeting on the 7th of February, a petition to the House of Commons was read and the Corporation seal was ordered to be affixed thereto. It set forth that the duty on Fire Insurances to the mercantile inhabitants was oppressive, and that it prevented many persons effecting insurances, and caused others to insure for only a minimum amount. It further stated that only a third of insurable property in the country was protected from loss of fire.

The Recorder's Death was officially made known to the Council at the same meeting by a letter received from the Clerk of the peace, and after a befitting eulogium to his memory, Coun. Winter moved, and Ald. Clement seconded that a vote of condolence should be sent to Mr. Thomas Attree, the late Recorder's surviving parent. At a meeting in March, the new Recorder, appointed by the Secretary of State was declared to be Robert Henry Hurst, Esq. As pertaining to this appointment a letter having been previously received from Mr. Turner, the County Court Judge, soliciting the support of the Council to his application to the Secretary of State, it was resolved that as Mr. Turner had already a very good office, it would be better if some young barrister of note to be appointed, and that in any case it had better be left with the Home Secretary to make the appointment. [ 16 ]Shortening of the Railway. Hastings and London being sought to be connected by a shorter route, a letter was received from A. Beattie, Esq. on the 7th of February asking for signatures to a petition to Parliament in favour of a Bill to enable the South-Eastern Company to construct a direct line from Lewisham to Tonbridge by which the distance to Hastings would be shortened 13 miles. On the motion of Mr. Ginner, seconded by Mr. Kenwood it was resolved to fix the Corporation seal to the petition.

The Prince Albert Memorial. At the same (February) meeting, this subject was discussed in consequence of a letter referring to it having been received from the Lord Mayor of London. On the motion of Coun. Howell it was decided to convene a public meeting to ascertain the sense of the town. At the April meeting, it was resolved that the site of the obelisk at the east end of Robertson street be given for the erection of a memorial clock tower, the space not to exceed 15 feet.

The Hartley Colliery Fund. At the same meeting a letter to the Mayor was received from Capt. Hope, stating that the collections on behalf of the widows and orphans of the men whose lives were lost by the accident at the Hartley Colliery had reached to the sum of £4440 6s. 3d., after deducting £4 9s. for expenses. His Worship explained what took place between himself and the gentlemen who got up the subscriptions. He had informed them that the subject would be brought before the Council, but they said they would gladly take the matter up; and he told them he was sure the Council would be grateful to them for doing so. He considered that great credit was due to them for their successful efforts. On the motion of Mr. Hales, it was resolved that the thanks of the Council be given to Capt. Hope, and to the ladies and gentlemen who had assisted in raising the subscriptions.

Roads. On the 7th of January, an application was made by Mr. Brandram for the Board to dedicate the roads round the Archery Ground, and the Committee's report to view the same, shortly was received and adopted. At the same time, Coun. Bromley again drew attention to the dangerous state of the road at Halton, and the Surveyor having stated that no reply had been received from Mr. Breeds, it was agreed that the Board should do the necessary repairs and charge Mr. Breeds with the expenses.

Improvement of Ore Lane On the 14th of April, this matter was brought before the Council by a letter, through Mr. Meadows, from the owner of the Ore estate, the object of the communication being to obtain the Council's co-operation. After some discussion, it was resolved that the Roads Committee be instructed to obtin a meeting of the landowners to consider the subject.

Not Sanctioned New roads to be called Quarry road, Balsloe Road[Notes 1] and St. Helen's Road, leading through Blackland's farm to the Ore estate were not sanctioned at the May meeting in consequence of some defects in the plan of drainage. [ 17 ]The Removal of Beach formed the subject of a lengthy discussion at the March monthly - as it had many time done before and after that date - the purpose in this case being to rescind a Council order of February, 1858, which required the shingle to be paid by persons taking it at 1s. per cart-load and 2/6 per waggon load. The amount thus realized was about £50 a year. Coun. Putland said he bought the matter forward for the purpose of removing a stumbling-block in the way of those who had to repair the roads in the neighbourhood the said roads having been in a wretched condition for several winters. He proposed that so much of the order be rescinded as applied to the summer months. Ald Clement seconded. Coun. Vidler thought Mr. Putland had found a mare's nest, if he thought that paying half-a-crown a load for a waggon-load of beach was the reason why the country roads were not in better repair. His own opinion was that it would not make one iota of difference whether the money was paid or not. The farmers came for the beach at their own convenience, and as there was a considerable wear and tear of roads in the borough, he thought it woudl be wrong to let the farmers take the beach without paying for it. Mr. Ginner considered the proposed alteration would be admitting a wrong principle, and that if made free at one time, they ought to make it free altogether. Coun. Howell moved as an amendment, and Coun. Kenwood seconded that the beach be made free altogether. [As both these gentlemen were extensive builders and used a large quantity of beach in the formation of concrete, the £50 loss to the borough might by some "strange accident" be £50 gain to them]. Coun. Picknell couldn't see why country people could not keep their roads in repair as well as townspeople. Coun. Bromley was opposed to both the motion and amendment. They ought not to give up £50 a year to keep country roads in repair. Coun. Juke was constantly travelling in the outlying district and believed the roads were in a better condition than they were two years ago. On the amendment and motion being put to the vote, they were both negative, there being 6 for the former and 4 for the latter, and 14 against.

New Justices - On the 4th of April, Thomas Ross, Will Ginner, Jas. Rock, jun. and E. Hayles, Esquires were officially announced as having been added to the roll of magistrates.

Lady Webster's Munificence in presenting to the Corporation the great historical painting of the "Battle of Hastings" was officially announced by the Mayor and a unanimous vote of thanks given to her ladyship.

The Geological Discovery of a block of black Tilgate stone, with footprints of an immense extinct animal or bird was notified to the same meeting (April 4th) and a resolution taken thereon that its presentation be referred to the committee who had charge of the painting.

Increase of Salary. Also on the 4th of April, the Borough Treasurer (Mr. Bennetts) haing applied for an increase of salary, from £50 to £80, [ 18 ]and the Finance Committee's report thereon having suggested that his salary was sufficient, a long discussion ensued. Coun. Bromley considered the treasurer the worst paid officer belonging to the Corporation. Coun. Putland held the same view. Ald. Clement remarked that the treasurer had to provide a very heavy bond. Coun. Vidler had heard that the treasurer's duties did not occupy him more than one hour each evening, and for that, he thought £50 a year was quite ample. Coun. Gausden would like to have the subject adjourned, as opinions appeared to be very conflicting. Mr. Ginner was satisfied that they would only be doing their duty by increasing the salary. Coun. Kenwood thought the treasurer was inadequately paid. Coun. Winter sympathised with the committee against any further increase, observing that there were gentlemen in that hall whose banking accounts occupied more time than did the borough accounts which the treasurer had to keep. It was ultimately resolved, on the motion of Mr. Bromley, to add £20 to the treasurer's salary. The proposition was carried by 13 votes to 8.

Another Increase of Salary. The Watch committee having recommended that the salary that the salary of the Police Superintendent (Mr. Glenister) be increased from £135 to £160, another lengthy and somewhat animated discussion ensued. Mr. Ginner had great pleasure in supporting the recommendation, for he thought Mr. Glenister was deserving of everything he asked for, and he (Mr. G), would make a proposition to that effect. Mr. Clement had pleasure in seconding it, for Mr. Glenister had been so attentive to his duties as to save the borough many expenses. Mr. Picknell admitted Mr. Glenister was a very good officer, but his salary, £3 per week, was a greater income than that of many a struggling tradesman. Coun. Wingfield complimented the Superintendent upon his gentlemanly bearing and the efficient performance of his duties, but when he compared Mr. Glenister's salary and emoluments (£162) with the pay and position of naval or military officers, he felt bound to say that an advance was not necessary, and he would propose that the salary remain the same. Mr. Hayles thought the question was whether they were to have an efficient officer at a fair remuneration or an inferior one at low pay? Mr. Duke said there was no man under the Corporation of whom he could speak in better terms, but there were others to be had capable of performing the duties and who would be glad of the opportunity. He thought that instead of Mr. Glenister being the worst paid officer, he was the best. [Tokens of dissent to the proposed increase having been several times manifested by persons assembled in the body of the hall, the Mayor said he could not allow any public expression of feeling in the hall] Coun. Poole quite agreed with Mr. Duke that £160 was sufficient. There was Mr. Inskipp, Clerk to the Board of Guardians, whose duties, mentally and bodily were far more arduous, but whose pay was much inferior. Coun. Putland be[ 19 ]lieved them by increasing the salary they would really be lessening the rates, a great saving being effected by the superintendent and his staff being preventives as well as detectives. [Without in any way venturing an opinion respecting the adequacy or inadequacy of the Superintendent's salary, the present writer can bear testimony to Mr. Glenister's adroitness in getting out of the town two suspected burglars and thieves before they had time to exercise their dishonest calling. In both cases the writer was opportunely made an accessory to the Superintendent's clever - and in one instance - bold manoeuvre in scenting and catching his game.] Mr. Putland, in continuation said he believed that scores of pick-pockets and other depredators had been kept out of the town by the Superintendent's vigilance. Messrs. Gausden and Kenwood both spoke in favour of the application, but the latter hoped that after this all the officers of the Corporation would be well paid, there would be no similar application for years to come. The motion for increase of salary was carried by 13 to 5.

A New Groyne having been recommended by the Stone Beach committee to be placed opposite the Cutter Inn, considerable discussion took place thereon, which resulted in the Committee's report and the empowering the Committee to advertise for tenders in the local papers. [Again, as in all previous cases, when the Corporation requirements were advertised, the then Liberal Gazette was purposely omitted by the Council that was composed of members who were largely a majority of Liberals. The proprietor of that journal finding that the town's advertisements continued to be sent to Mr. Knight's subsidised Tory Observer, and almost worthless and ill-conducted paper, resolved, at once, to cease reporting the Councl meetings after the month of May. Hence, arises the non-appearance of the doings of that august body in this History during the remainder of the year. The Gazette was an older paper than the Observer, and its proprietor probably paid on a higher borough assessment than the conductor of the Observer did, whilst a challenge was given and not accepted that the sale and circulation of the Gazette was more than double that of the then Observer. This will form an amusing episode in local journalism as this History proceeds; the principal aim being now to show that if the Gazette was never to have the town's advertisements, then its proprietor, (who was both editor and reporter) felt that he no longer could afford the time and expense of attending the Council meetings, transcribing his notes for the compositors, and keeping his staff at work half the night on overtime wages. This by way of explanation of the year's incomplete record in this History of the Town Councils transactions. It may, however be added that thenceforth the Gazette was described in the London and provincial directories as "Politics Neutral", instead of "Politics Liberal", the political nemesis of which it is intended to show in a later chapter.]
[ 20 ]

Fossil Remains

In the third week of February the fossil remains of an extinct animal were dragged up in a fisherman's trawl-net. They consisted of a tooth weighing 7lbs. and a huge semi-circular tusk or horn, 7 feet long. They were afterwards exhibited by Mr. Stephenson, at the Rising Sun inn.

Concerts and Entertainments

The African Minstrels gave the entertainment at the Music Hall on the 17th and 18th of February to not very large audiences. Some of their songs were pleasingly rendered, and their talkative powers were extremely funny, but they were certainly not equal to Christy's

The Rev. J. M. Bellew's second visit to Hastings on the 10th of February was hailed with delight by those who filled the Music Hall to hear him read - it might be said acted - choice extracts from the British Poets. His performance was an intellectual treat.

Mr. W. S. Woodin had a "full house" on the evening of Monday, Feb. 24th, at the Music Hall. His mimicry and his rapid and clever metamorphoses created as much surprise as delight.

A Sacred-music Concert was given in the Music Hall on the 26th of March, by the Mountfield Sacred Choral Society, the object of which was to assist in raising a fund for the fishermen's widows and children. Mr. Wiseman conducted and Mr. Thomson presided at the piano. The concert relised about £10 for the fund.

Also a Reading for the same object (and a very good one, but thinly attended) was given in the Music Hall by Mr. Butter, of Lewes, on the 24th of March. The surplus proceeds was nil.

Nautical Entertainment. On the evening of the 17th of March, Mr. Ransford appeared at the Music Hall in a novel entertainment, entitled "Tales of the Sea" with musical illustrations. The entertainment was of a coloquial character, interspersed with nautical ongs, the latter, 12 in number, so powerfully and melodiously rendered as to be applauded again and again.

Christy's Minstrels, the far-found "darkies" gave three entertainments at the Music Hall during the week which ended on the third of May, and to large and delighed audiences. As vocalists, instrumentalists and actors, their talents were of the first order of merit.

Fact and Fiction were successfully delineated by Madame Card (neé Miss Eagle) at the Music Hall on the 10th and 11th of May, when the performances of this lady were regarded as of an extrordinary character. She completely astonished and delighted the audiences boh in her feats of legerdemain and as a powerful manetic manipulator[1], having in the former her subject, and in the latter her subjects under almost superhuman control. The writer had known her before as a girl when she appeared at the Swan Assembly rooms as a clairvoyant.

Latest intelligence Under this title, Mrs George Cox, better known as  [ 21 ]Miss Grace Egerton, gave her entertainment at the Music Hall on the 24th of July to an overflowing audience. The dramatic and comic representations of this fair artist, her correct delinetion of character and her versatility of talent all combined to form a rich source of amusement, added to which was the musical ability of her husband on the piano. the violin and the English concertina.

Madam Card and Mr. Thurton separately entertained full audiences at the Music Hll during the week which ended on the 30th of August. The former (as before noticed) was a clever illusionist and an equally clever mesmerist, whilst the latter (an ex-compositor) was one of the best mimics and laughter evoking ventriloquist that ever visited Hastings. It was said of him that his only fault ws that of giving too much for money.

Various Entertainments Under the heading of "Public Amusements" the St. Leonards Gazette of Sept. 20th remarked as follows:- Not to speak of the various bands of wandering minstrels that the pedestrian meets at every turnng, there must have been, the last few weeks, a sufficiently extensive programme of amusements to satiate the cravings of any moderate pleasure-seeker, and such as cannot fail to render fabulous the statement of Punch's correspondent that "there are no public amusements here except throwing stones into the sea." Cricket-matches Cave exhibitions, Sol-fa rehearsals, its-meetings, lectures, pic-nics, bathing, boating, swimming and other diversions have been as plentiful as blackberries, but those of a more special character and whose recognition is more immediately the province of the journalists are noticed in the following paragraphs:-

First on our list is the entertainment by Mrs. George Case and her husband the two celebrities whose familiar faces at the Music Hall on the 11ths and 12th of September secured to them a large attendance of admirers and won for them repeated plaudits, appreciative of their uncommon abilities.

The equestrian and other performances of Sanger's Circus and Menagerie next claim attention, not so much for their routine character of amusements as for their semblence of respectability, their numerical superiority and the absence of that degenerate taste which of late has converted the arenas of similar establishments into mere boxing rings. About 4000 persons patronised the two performances.

The next in order of enumeration is Mr. Edwards's grand Diorama of the Holy Land, which commenced exhibiting at the Music Hall on Monday, Sept 15th and continued all the week. It was visited by many persons of distinction who expressed their gratification of the pictorial representations of the classic soil there placed before them. This colossal work of Art was said to be the joint production of several members of the New Water-colour Society, assisted by a great Eastern traveller, and to contain 20,000 square yards of canvas, woven for the purpose. [ 22 ]Sol-Fa Concert. The second public rehearsal of the St. Leonards Sol-fa Singing Class took place on the evening of Sept. 22nd in the Market Hall at Hastings, the profits of which were to be added to the Lancashire Distress fund. The performance was thoroughly enjoyed, if judged only by the plaudits which followed each piece and the frequent calls for repetition.

Sam Cowell and Company gave a concert at the Music Hall on each of the evenings Thursday and Friday, Nov. 6th and 7th, and which must have been greatly enjoyed, this evidenced by the rapturous applause and hearty laughter with which the hall resounded. Sam was evidently a comicality of the first water.

Professor Frikell, the cleverest conjurer of the day, gave his "Two Hours of Illusions" at the Music Hall on Monday evening, Nov. 3rd to a numerous and astonished audience.

"The Seven Ages of Human", so admirably delineated by Miss Emma Stanley at the Music Hall on the evenings of the 12th, 13th and 14th of Nov. were again represented on the following afternoon.

Mr. Edwards's Panorama, entitled "Two Hours in the New World" was exhibited twice a day during the week ending on December 6th, and was largely visited at each performance. The representations consisted mainly of American scenery, accompanied with a descriptive lecture, appropriate music, songs, dances, anecdotes, &c.

The Band Concert, at the Music Hall on the 17th of December arranged by Mr. S. Hermitage for the benefit of the bandsmen of the Fairlight Artillery Volunteers, was fairly attended, and the entertainment, consisting of songs, glees, recitations and instrumental pieces, appeared to give general satisfication.

The Harp Recital at the Music Hall on the 16th of September, was thinly attended, much of course to the performer's disadvantage. Mr. Aptoma's abilities on the harp had a wonder-stirring effect; and, remembering his previously grand reception at St. Leonards, it is possible that all the publicity to the "recital" at Hastings was not given that might have been.

Two Grand Concerts arranged by Mr. Lockey, on behalf of the distressed operatives in Lancashire and the local medical institutions, under distinguished patronage, took place on Friday, Dec. 26, and were very numerously and fashionably attended. The morning concert consisted of sections from the sacred compositions of Handel, Mozart, Mendelssohn and Rosini(sic), added to which were some Christmas Carols and other pieces appropriate to the season. The evening concert consisted of secular pieces. The celebrated Orpheus Glee Union took part in both concerts, and in which the superb alto of Mr. Fielding was conspicuous. Poor Fielding! he afterwards died at Battle, in the cemetery of which town his remains were interred and a mural monument was raised to his memory by his musical friends, at the uncovering of which the compiler of this history was privileged to participate. [ 23 ]

The Christian Association

This association inaugurated their discussion season at the Congregational schoolroom with a tea meeting, and which was afterwards made additionally pleasant by speeches and singing. Mr. Dean, the organist, presiding at the piano.

Special Dinners, Suppers, &c.

The friends of Mr. (now Lord) Brassey, the respected occupier of Beauport, near Hastings, invited him to a dinner at Birkenhead on the 14th of January, in connection with the late election at that place.

Corporation Dinner. On Tuesday, the 7th of January, F. North, Esq., entertained at dinner the Mayor, Aldermen and Councillors. Much regret was expressed that the esteemed host was too unwell to join the party. In his absence, the honours of the table devolved on the Rt. Hon. Thomas E. Headlam, Judge Advocate General, who had been staying on a visit at Hastings Lodge. Among the company present were the Mayor (T. Ross, Esq.), the Deputy Mayor F. Ticehurst, Esq., Alderman Hayles, Councillors Bromley, Duke, Gutsell, How, Howell, Kenwood, Neve, Putland, Poole, Picknell, John and James Reeves, F. Tree, Rev. J. Parkin, W. B. Young, Esq., J. Phillips, Esq., W. Scrivens, Esq., and Capt. Gough. Several other gentlemen who had received invitations were unable to be present in consequence of illness or absence from town.

The Annual Club-Dinners. The Whitsuntide festivities were, of course, fully reported at the time in the local papers, and all that is intended here is to enumerat(sic) the various societies and to locate the places where they banqueted. As a preliminary, it may be said that five of these societies performed their customary round in grand procession with their handsome banners and distinctive paraphernlia, presenting a coup d'oeil at once pleasing and animating. Of the five clubs which thus went in procession, four of them were marshalled as follows:- The Friendly Society, with two bands of the 4th Cinque Ports Artillery; the Victoria Lodge, M. U., preceded by the band of the 2nd Sussex Artillery; the Benevolent Society, headed by the Battle band; and The Foresters, accompanied by a band from Wittersham. In this way 525 "clubites", exclusive of the bandsmen, wended their way through the principle thoroughfares between the top of High street in the old town and the Saxon Hotel at St. Leonards, returning each man to his respective rendezous, there to partake of substantials and delicacies for which his long walk must have well prepared him. The Old Friendly Society, about 240 in number, had their 47th annual festival at the Swan Hotel, where Mrs. Carswell was the hostess; the Benevolent Society dined at the Market Hall, Mr. Chas. West being the cuisinier; the Victoria Lodge of Oddfellows, to the number of about 200, banqueted at the Music Hall, the dinner being served up by Mr. Turner of the Havelock hotel; and the Ancient Order of Foresters, about 70, dined at the Have[ 24 ]lock hotel. The Adelaide Lodge of Oddfellows celebrated its 23rd anniversary by dining at the Warriors Gate St. Leonards; and about sixty members of the South of England Society dined at the King's Head inn, Hastings, where Mr. King was landlord.

Mr. Alderman Ginner entertained the Recorder (R. H. Hurst, Esq.), the Borough Magistrates and other officials at dinner on Friday; July 11th, the Castle-hotel Assembly-room being used for the purpose.

Lord Harvey Vane M.P. for Hastings, entertained the Mayor and Corporation at dinner on Tuesday, September 9th, in the great hall of Battle Abbey.

Visitation Dinner. On Thursday Oct. 16th, after the Bishop of the diocese had conducted his triennial visitation service at St. Clements church, he dined with about 80 clergymen and laymen at the Swan hotel.

P. F. Robertson, Esq., of Halton House, gave a sumptuous dinner on the 24th of October, to the Recorder (R. A. Hurst, Esq.) and 26 Borough and County Magistrates and other officials.

Mr. and Mrs. Frewen, of Coghurst gave their Harvest Home dinner on the 12th of November to about 270 of their workpeople and friends. Also, as usual, various articles of clothing to the workpeople's families.

A Free Tea, on June 2nd, was given by Mr. Griffen, eating-house keeper of George street, to the children of the Tenterden union, who with the governor and matron visited Hastings. Another good-natured act was the treating them to a free sail on the water by Messrs. Tutt, Curtis and Wenman.

Dinner to Lieut. Rock. In the large room at the Swan Hotel on Tuesday evening, the 8th of April, nearly 150 persons attended a testimonial banquet to Lieut. James Rock, a greatly respected officer of the 1st Cinque Ports Rifle Volunteer, whose exertions from the commencement f the movement had been highly valued and on whom for a considerable time past had devolved the principal command. The character of the company and the oneness of sentiment pervading the meeting must have been highly gratifying to Lieut. Rock, and may have repaid him in a great measure for the energy and devotion he had evinced in the duties of his military career. The dinner was ostensibly given by the Rifle Corps, but a considerable number of Artillery were also present, as well as a fair sprinkling of civilians. The bands of corps were stationed in a convenient part of the building, and added to the cheerfulness of the evening.

Public Funerals

A scene characterized by deep solemnity and mournfulness was witnessed at All Saint's church on Tuesday, the 15th of July when the funeral of the Rev. H. S. Foyster, the much esteemed rector of that parish took place. The mortal remains of the deceased gentleman [ 25 ]were interred on the north-east side of the church, and the mournful ceremony was witnessed by a very large concourse of persons, to many of whom the kind-heartedness, benevolence and other Christian virtues of the deceased were well known. The body of the deceased, which was borne from the Rectory to the Church by six bearers, was preceded by the members of the Corporation and officials connected therewith. The pall was borne by six clergymen - namely, the Revs. Thomas Vores, H. Simpson (Bexhill), T. Nightingale, T. E. Tanner, W. B. Bennett and A. Turner. In addition to the relatives and private friends of the deceased, the body was followed by the church-wardens of All Saints and St. Clements' the male and female servants, and several of the principal residents of the neighborhood(sic). The burial service was read by the Rev. J. Parkin, and as the funeral procession left the church the Dead March in Saul was played by Mr. Giles, the organist.
The last rites having been paid to the deceased gentleman at the grave those who were present returned to their homes, doubtless deeply affected by the occurrence which had called them together. In the death of the Rev. H. S. Foyster the parishioners generally lost a good counsellor, and the poor a valued friend.

Mr. Polhill's Funeral, on the 1st of September was one that would not easily be effaced from the memory of those who witnessed it. Thousands of persons who had congregated near the residence of the deceased, followed the funeral cortege to the cemetery at Ore, and there paid the last earthly respect to the departed. A lengthened report, which appeared at the time is here withheld; and readers must judge for themselves of the friendly feeling manifested towards the late Brigade Sergt. Major Polhill by the processionists here enumerated:- Detachments of Police; Privates of four sections of volunteers; with two muffled bands, escorted by a firing party; members of the Hastings Friendly Society; mourning coaches and twelves private carriages; and the mournful cavalcade met at the cemetery by 40 other carriages and a countless number of pedestrians. Such was the march to the tomb of a townsman who had been successively a tailor, a baker, a publican, a pork-butcher, a political agent, an active member of the oldest benefit society, and an equally active officer of Artillery. His general urbanity and respectful bearing towards friends and foes won for him the esteem of his fellow-men; and when he had thus gone to his last home it was hoped that his widow - whose unremitting attention to business in Robertson street gave her late partner the leisure necessary for his out-of-door duties - would not be forgotten. The following lines by "L. B.", of St. Leonards, were contributed to the St. Leonards Gazette:-

"To the Memory of One who has passed Away"
"Thy labour o'er, thy hard work done,
"The love of thousands thou hast won;

[ 26 ]

Thy manly form hath passed away,
Thy sun has set ere close of day.
A sable curtain drawn around
Now tells us thou art under ground;
No more thy watchful, tender care
Which made our ills so light to bear
Is ours. - A higher place is thine.
Among the blessed thou dost shine.
Thy battle fought, thy laurels won,
Our Saviour says to thee, Well Done!"

The Lancashire Distress

The distress in the cotton manufacturing districts, to relieve which Hastings and St. Leonards, in common with other towns, bestirred themselves, was, like the Hartley Colliery accident, a great national disaster. Bretts St. Leonards Gazette of Oct. 25th, introduced the subject to its readers as follows:- Probably in the history of the world, no war has ever exerted so direct and disastrous an influence on any special branch of industry as the American was has exercised in relation to the cotton districts. Until the breaking out of this was the workers in the said district were fully employed. There may have been, as is asserted, overproduction; but this, if it were really so, was felt to be no hardship by the factory operatives. They were fully employed and were satisfied. The distress is now general all through the so-called cotton districts.

Mr. Farnell, the Poor-law special Commissioner, shows a painful state of privation. He says that in the 24 unions in the cotton manufacturing districts there is an increase of persons receiing parochial relief of 7,845, as compared with the previous week; thus showing that the distress at the present time when winter is setting in, is on the increase. He also shows that whilst this time last year there were but 43,861 recipients of parochial relief, there are now 176,483 - a most alarming increase; and that whilst the expense £2,191 per week, it is now no less than £10,648; so that upwards of £8,000 has to be raised by local rates out of vastly diminished profits. In six consecutive weeks no fewer than 36,668 persons have become paupers. These results are painful in the extreme, but we must add another painful item. Several mills are preparing to shut up altogether. In Ashton within the last few days, two of the largest firms, employing upwards of 3,000 hands are preparing to close their works; and several smaller firms in that and other towns will have to follow the example. In Preston, 13,124 looms have been stopped, the number of spindles being 1,086,602.

There are in once "Proud Preston", now, alas! 12,238 operatives out of employment, the weekly loss in this town alone being £7,000. In Black[ 27 ]burn, last week, 19,345 persons were in receipt of poor-law relief. When we add to all this mere statistical pauperism, the vast distress occasioned to the families or relatives of all those persons; when we think of the amount of bitter privation, the hunger, the cold, the want of every little comfort and of many a necessary; it is really oppressive to any regulated mind. The poor factory hands of Lancashire, Yorkshire and Chesshire(sic) have but one consolation - that the distress has come upon by no fault of their own, but by the direct action of a pitiful, revengeful and cruel war, which they had no power to stop. In this respect the moral of the American war ought indeed to be powerful. It should do more in creating a horror and disgust for war generally than all the peace lectures that were ever delivered. Every American mail should be a homily; every transatlantic newspaper, nightly read, should be a sermon.

The patient, quiet endurance which the operatives of the north are now manifesting is an honour to them, and a noble spectacle for the world; and we can show, in no boastful spirit, another noble spectacle - the effort to relieve this bitter distress. Our colonies have already done bravely. Australia has sent us £15,000; India has sent a like amount; and both countries will send more. In our own country, great efforts have been made and are still being made to relieve this distress; but it is evident from Mr. Farall's report, with the winter setting in, and from the absence of any probability of the speedy influx of cotton, that a great deal more must be done in this way. We therefore throw out a few suggestions - some of which may have been made before - that all who can may help in the good work.

In every church and chapel collections should be made - say on the first Sunday in November. Every workshop and factory should have its penny subscription; concerts, lectures and other entertainments should be given to help the poor factory operatives, and thus, pleasure would have a double zest. By such agencies an immense amount might be raised; and it is the duty of Hastings, as well as of the country generally, thus to help the suffering work-people. The distress will not be permanent. The hour of deliverance may be far off, but the good time will come; and we shall have the satisfaction of knowing that we have honourably and kindly met a severe stroke of affliction, which we, in the first instance were powerless to avert.

In consonance with the foregoing appeal the following letter was received by the Editor:- "Sir - may God bless you for the stirring appeal in your last on behalf of the suffering operatives of Lancashire; and I hope that the press all over the United Kingdom will similarly raise its powerful voice. A Lancashire woman myself, and an eye witness within these last few weeks of the misery now reigning in the cotton districts, I can fully appreciate every effort, however humble, which aims at lessening [ 28 ]the heart-rending suffering of the poor operatives. Would that my pen was powerful enough to draw aside the veil, and reveal in all its ghastliness and the wretchedness of the once happy homes. Yet it is fearful to contemplate what the result will be if the winter should find the relieving committees unprepared. In rags and in tatters, without food, without shelter, with disease marked in their pale faces, so shall we see our poor unfortunate countrymen and women overrunning the country, and the people becoming accustomed to such sights of wretchedness, may grow callous and indifferent. When I look around and behold the many noble institutions which are supported in this place by voluntary contributions, I cannot avoid thinking, Mr. Editor, that you are blessed here with people who have the fear of God in their hearts, and who bear goodwill and love to their fellow creatures. Surely there, I will be pardoned for raising my feeble supplication for help. To the women of Hastings and St. Leonards I would especially say - Bestir yourselves in this good work! Above all things, make it a matter of earnest prayer. Permit me to suggest. sir, that after every concert of other public amusement, or wherever Englishmen of English women meet - be it for prayer or for pleasure, for joy or for sorrow, poor Lancashire be not forgotten. - As regards the ultimate solving the difficulty by means of the Consolidated Fund, let your readers be aware that Lancashire must be on the verge of the most hopeless ruin before Government will adopt so unprecedented a measure.
I am, sir, your very obedient servant,
Lucy H. Sherrington.

St. Leonards (illegible text) 30.

Concurrently with the publication of the above letter was another article in the St. Leonards Gazette as follows:-
The letter of a Lancashire woman, which we this day publish, and the epistle of a physician, transferred from the Times to our own columns, sufficiently show the accuracy of our last week's remarks upon the distress in the cotton districts, and go far to prove that the suggestions we made for the collection of funds were not only desirable to be acted upon, but almost imperatively necessary. Week by week the suffering grows deeper and the circle of misery expands. It is said that there are no fewer than 150,000 operatives entirely out of work, while nearly as many are on short time. Not less than £32,000 per week will meet this extensive pauperism; and the country generally, as near as can be estimated supplies only half this amount, Lancashire, Cheshire and Yorkshire having to make up the other moiety. So much has been said and written about this destress, that we will now only add that it is the duty of everyone in the present crisis to do something as far as in him lies for the relief of a suffering that is not like so much other suffering - self imposed. But we 
[ 29 ]would seize the opportunity to give further currency to some remarks by the Times in reference to our cotton supply. The Times, alluding to our past commercial intercourse with India says:-
It was taken for granted that our exports to India would never balance our imports, and that the drain of gold and silver into this bottomless abyss would continue without any abatement. The experiment, however, was tried, and the result has been that ever since, many fine Indiamen, instead of going out in ballast, have been freighted with cotton goods, and have made handsome profits on the outward as well as on the homeward voyage. Still, there was no influx of raw cotton from Calcutta to Europe. A certain quantity of cottons indeed was registered among the exports of Bengal, but this consisted chiefly of piece goods received from England and re-exported to China. At length, the laws of supply and demand have vindicated themselves, and the inhabitants of Bahar and the Gangetic valley are beginning to grow cotton for the English market. The high price is beginning to influence the cultivators, and we may expect five times as much as the ordinary supply from Calcutta in the course of next year.

Surely our Lancashire mill-owners now have the remedy in their own hands. India comes to the rescue, and we trust that no barriers of prejudice - no commercial theories - no partial inferiority of Indian cotton to American, will be allowed to prevent this natural remedy for a political evil.

The Local Collections

It was hoped and believed that the articles and letters which appeared in the St Leonards Gazette and its Hastings contemporaries did good service in evoking practical sympathy with the distressed operatives in the cotton districts, which resulted in the getting together a sum of between two and three thousand pounds. As suggested, concerts lectures and sermons were made available for contributions to the handsome total of moneys in the locality, which, after the similarly large collection for the colliery catastrophe, must be considered to have supplied a record to the praiseworthy energy as well as to the munificence of the borough. The following is an account of the moneys that were separately contributed:- Three excellent sermons were preached at St. Mary's-in-the-Castle on Sunday, Sept. 21st by the Revs. T. Vores, J. G. Ryle and H. Geldhart. The three collections for the Lancashire fund amounted to a total of £174; truly a munificent sum. On the following Sunday, collections were made for the same object at the Wesleyan Chapels of the two towns, that at Hastings being £13 9s., and that at St. Leonards, £9 8s. The church of St. Mary Magdalen contributed to the fund a second time on Dec. 7th, a sum bordering on £80 being [ 30 ]collected on that occasion after an appropriate sermon. Hollington also gave its mite, and - to write paradoxically a rather large mite to the Lancashire Relief Fund. Its little isolated church received the donations of the parishioners to the extent of £22 on the 7th of December, which amount was sent to the central committee. On the following Sunday (Dec. 14th) two sermons were preached in the church of St. Matthew, and a sum of £28 was collected for the Lancashire fund. The entire sum got together at this time by the clergy, the Mayor and a committee of other gentlemen, was £2,500. The two grand concerts given at Christmas by Mr. Lockey in the Music Hall realised a surplus of £25 for the same object. The National Schoolchildren of St. Leonards-on-sea collected £4 17s. 9d. for the relief fund. They had previously collected £3 10s. within the space of two ays; hence, the distressed operatives might be said to have had sympathising and energetic help where least they might have been looked for. Details of other church offertories and collections from some minor sources, together with the list of private subscriptions, are not conveniently within reach; but the total amount which had passed through the Committee's hands up to the end of the year was £2,291 12s. 7d.; and of this £1,000 had been sent to the Central Committee at Manchester.

Schools and School Treats

The British-School Boys were publicly examined at the Hastings Mechanics’ Institution on the 4th of March, before Mr. C. F. Vardy, of the Normal College Borough road. The examination consisted of writing, arithmetic, history, geography and essays on scriptural subjects. Maps and drawings of some of the older pupils were also exhibited. Maps of Palestine were drawn from memory; and altogether most of the boys showed a very satisfactory degree of proficiency.

The New Building For the erection of the new British Schools, tenders were received in November from Messrs. Broadbridge, (illegible text), Hoadle and Vidley; the tender of the first named (£444 10s.) being accepted.

School Sermons preached at various churches on Sunday, April 27th, were pecuniarily beneficial as follows:- St. Leonards £21; St. Mary-in-the-Castle, £50; St. Clement's, £20; All Saints £20; plus the odd money.

A School Treat Through the liberality of Mr. J. Rock, sen. in the month of July, the St. Mary's of Hastings, commendably initiated its namesake of St. Leonards, by a substantial repast to about 70 of the young men and lads belonging to its Evening School. They met in the schoolroom on the evening of the 14th and partook of an excellent tea, after which, rewards were distributed for good conduct and regular attendance.

The Evening Schools of St. Mary's-in-the-Castle, St. Clements, and All [ 31 ]Saints, which, in previous winters had greatly assisted poor youths in the acquisition of knowledge were again opened in October in furtherance of their laudable object.

The Halton School Sermon having been postponed from the 12th to the 19th of October in consequence of rough weather, the incumbent (Rev. J. Parkin) was equally unfortunate in his second selection of the day, and the attendance was such that only £12 was collected.

An Earlier Treat. It might have been stated that the treat of Mr. Rock to the youths of the St. Mary's Evening Schools on the 14th of July, was the second one during the year. The first was on the 13th of January, when the learners of the said school were the recipients of refreshments and some valuable books as rewards for their progress and good conduct. On that occasion, Mr. Rock with fatherly kindness encouraged them in their studies and gave them examples of men who were once placed in similar positions, but who, through the blessings of an evening school, became some of the greatest men of their day. The number admitted during the season exceeded 100, and under the tuition of Messrs. Berry? and Fullager, were making considerable progress.

An Exhibition Treat. By the kindness of a lady, 140 children of the Sunday School, of St. Mary, were treated to the Great Exhibition in Hyde Park (There were also several workman's treats to the Exhibition, noteably(sic), those of Mr. Howell, Messrs. Rocks and Messrs. Blomfield.

The Hastings Ragged School had its annual field day at Field's Farm on Thursday, September 11th, where the children were kindly feted by the ladies and gentlemen who were known to take a deep interest in their welfare. The behaviour of the children was spoken of in eulogistic terms.

A New Building for the Ragged School

The immediately preceding paragraph is a pleasing reminder of the part taken by Brett's St Leonards and Hastings Gazette in a general advocacy of Ragged Schools and in the particular support of needed greater accommodation. The said journal in its issue of April 19th had the following article:-
Many of our readers will have noticed that a Bazaar in aid of the Building Fund of the Hastings Ragged School is to be held in the Music Hall on Wednesday and Thursday next. The object is of so laudable a character that we cannot permit the present opportunity to pass without a few words on its behalf, even if it be only to remind those whose whose momentary forgetfulness might cause them to be unintentionally absent.
There can barely be a negative opinion as to the desirability of encouraging Ragged Schools when it is remembered that their object is to ameliorate the condition of the human family. But it is not every mind that realizes to itself the full amound of good desirable from the encouragement thus given. We are too prone to regard the efforts made to better the condition of the poor as many acts of grace, calculated only to benefit those on whom our care is professedly bestowed without ever reflecting that the benefits are to some 
[ 32 ]extent reciprocated. The sub-stratum of society must be properly cared for, or the superstructure will become insecure and the social fabric fall to the ground. This is a maxim the truth of which, every day serves more and more to develop, howsoever unmindful we may be of the important fact. Taking for granted, then, that it behoves all whose means and opportunities will admit of it to amend society - where it is defective, what nobler work than that of Ragged Schools can occupy our attention?

Ragged Schools have already exercised an important influence in more than one direction, and the benefit of such influence, individually and nationally, can scarcely be over-estimated. In Ragged School work we not only benefit the rising generation, but, as already intimated, we confer a benefit on ourselves. And even if the latter were not the case, there would still be a warrant for the enlistment of our sympathies, that the children of the poor were rescued from a life of wretchedness, and taught the means of obtaining an honest livelihood, so as to become at least respectable members of society. It is no light matter to pick up from the highways and byeways of our populous districts some of those unfortunates who in their ragged infancy, run about with naked feet, dragging forth, it may be a loathsome crust from a heap of rubbish or warming themselves with the steam that issues from the kitchen of the rich; poor creatures that hunger urges on to want, and want to theft and theft to something worse; disinterested mortals which the pentitentiary receives at twelve, the Hulks at twenty, and the scaffold at forty: It is, we repeat, no light matter no unimportant achievement that, with a school, or a workshop, these poor, neglected children are taken in hand to be morally and physically trained, and by such training made to partake of Gods blessings, and rendered worthy members of society.

From the second annual report of the Hastings Ragged School, just issued by the Committee, we learn that much has already been accomplished, and that further success is confidently anticipated. The number of children both of the day-school and Sunday-school, are said to be steadily improving, and an improvement in the general behaviour of the scholars is observable.

In connection with the Mothers' Meetings, {which continue to have about twenty} is a coal-club, whilst the girls have also a clothing club. In addition to these a Penny-Savings-Bank has been established; and it is encouraging to notice (says the report) the honest pride and self satisfaction which the children evince in bringing their little contributions in pence and farthings, instead of spending them as formerly upon trashy edibles, to the subversion of order in the school. The advantages thus ennumerated, together with a small lending library and an annual treat form [ 33 ]the principal features of the Hastings Ragged School; and, judging from the statements contained in the report and from information otherwise obtained, the thanks of the public, we think, are due to the persevering efforts of the ladies who form the committee of management. The are Miss. M. Paton (hon. secretary and treasurer), Miss Cooper, the Misses Eade, Mrs Greenhill, Mis Harvey, the Misses Hills, Miss Piper, Mrs Stacey, Miss Thompson and Mrs. Wilson

As we set out with calling attention to the forthcoming bazaar, we deem it desirable to explain that the special object of the bazaar is to raise a fund of about £500 to defray the expense of erecting a suitable building for the school, the room at present occupied being totally incapable of accommodating the number presently and prospectively applying for admittance. Upwards of £50 has already been obtained towards the object, and with so respectable a sum as a nucleus, it seems highly probable that the Committee have not formed a too sanguine hope that the projected fund will be realised.

in conclusion, we would impress upon the public the desirability - not to say necessity, of helping the good work, reminding them that although a considerable amount of good hs been already effected, much more remains to be done. Duty and philanthropy demand that our outcast youth be rescued from a state of helpless degradation and abject dependence; and be taught their intellectual and mechanical abilities, as well as their moral obligations; in a word, that they be brought to a knowledge of God and themselves;

For man with an enlightened mind,
Earth's beauties may explore,
And trace therein the hand of God,
And all his works adore.
But keep him in his ignorance,
you pauperize his name;
Yea! keep him in his ignorance,
You make him dead to shame.
Yes! Keep him in his ignorance,
And you will ever find
No chance has he to imitate
The nobler of his kind.

The Bazaar very successful. On the 23rd, 24th and 25th of April, the Music Hall presented quite a picturesque and animated scene, in consequence of its being selected as an entrepot for a large stock of fancy and useful articles, the proceeds from the sale of which were to be made available for the creation of a new Ragged School. The event had been looked forward to with a considerable amount of interest, and the digitals of the lady patrons and well-wishers of the object had been long and nimbly plied in the preparations of the articles intended for sale or for exhibition. That the venture was quite a success will be presently shown; but first let us briefly describe what we saw on entering [ 34 ]the Hall. Placed round the room were stalls to the number of nine or ten on which were displayed all sorts of delicate fabrics bearing the impress of ingenuity and elegant workmanship. These were presided over by about thirty ladies whose names deserve to be recorded, but like many other details, are here omitted for the purpose of abreviation(sic). One stall contained a number of useful articles made by Mr. Beaney, a blind man residing at 21 Marina (a reminder that Mrs. Smith, a blind woman, an octogenarian native, still alive in 1900, has knitted, netted and otherwise manufactured articles almost enough to stock a shop. The refreshment tables were placed in the ante-room, where was also a curiously designed landscape, constructed of paper and forming quite a picture. At the upper part of the hall the recess was screened in as a separate department for the exhibition of numerous Chinese curiosities brought from the summer palace of the Emperor of China by Capt. Dunne. Among the articles thus shown were several richly embroidered un-made dresses, bearing, among other devices, the Imperial Dragon, and which to wear by any than the Emperor himself was said to incur the penalty of death. There several elegant specimens of carving and other unique curiosities, but the article that appeared to attract the ladies attention most was a richly embroidered panel, the two sides of which were of exactly the same patern(sic), with no reversing of colours, and without a knot or a join. Mr. Garde stood guard over the department and succeeded in taking £8 on the first day, the admission fee of about 200 persons to that division. Near to the Chinese exhibition was a weighing machine, by means of which we were politely informed, had been correctly ascertained the weight of a Cam((illegible text))el, a Cat(t) and a Dog(e). The walls of the room were festooned with evergreens and a profuse display of flags and mottoes, neatly and tastefully arranged. The tout ensemble was further enhanced by the magnificent painting of the Battle of Hastings, beneath which was stationed Herr Kluckner's excellent band. The following were the statistics as nearly as could be ascertained when this report was written:- First day's visitors 849, and receipts £140; second day's visitors 550, and receipts about £110; third day's visitors, 200, and receipts about £110.

The Fishery

Nine Fishermen Drowned. During the gale that raged in the Atlantic and the English Channel on Saturday and Sunday, the 8th and 9th of March, one of the Hastings, then in the Plymouth waters, was capsized and all its crew were immediately drowned. The fatal occurrence was the result of a heavy sea striking the boat while crossing a shoal at the west end of the Plymouth breakwater, in its endeavour to reach a place of safety. Some extraordinary exertions were made to recover the men, but all proved unavailing. The name of the boat was "The Crystal Palace", and the crew consisting of eight persons, were George Page (master), George Sargent, Joseph Cramp, James Peters, William Down, Edwin Chatfield [ 35 ]Henry Swain and a boy, named William Bates. Five widows and nine children were left to mourn their loss. Fears were at first entertained that another boat of a similar name had shared the same fate, but, after losing one man, she returned to the harbour on Monday afternoon, having survived the tempestuous weather. [The weather forecast of the St Leonards Gazette for the first of those two days (March 8th), was "Lunar aspects predicate lively atmospheric state"] and the condition of the weather as it locally occurred was described thus:-

"The morning's dawn was beautiful and bland,
The rising sun did cheer, Britannia's land;
But soon a fog-storm, threat'ning as could be,
Came strangely rolling northward from the sea.
As as o'er land imperviously it swelled,
It wind's diversion west to south impelled.
As from the fog the air was getting clear,
The retrogressive winds did further veer;
And then, of snowy whiteness, came in view,
Electric vapours - sky intensely blue.
With warmth unusual for the time of year,
A day most beautiful did thus appear;
But ev'ning came, with vivid lightning's flash,
And rain and wind, with thunders awful crash.

The forecast for the second day of the storm (March 9th) was -

"At first the weather seemeth mild,
Then more unsettled - windy, wild.
The weather as it occurred was thus described:-
The wind blew strongly all the night,
Yet Jupiter benign.
Produced a morning mainly bright
And mild as well as fine.
But ere 'twas noon the rain fell fast,
("Though glass" told diff'rent tale),
And very soon the southern blast
Increased to perfect gale.
It thus continued less or more,
Till eight at eventide,
When Hershel's aspects being o'er
The wind did then subside."

On Monday, March 10th, came the news to Hastings of the grievous loss of the fishermen at Plymouth, which was referred to in th ereport of the weather for that as follows:-

The morning, under Saturn's sway,
Was ushered in with rain

[ 36 ]

But breakfast hour appeared more gay,
With sunshine in its train.
Just then was known the grievous fact
That, near to Plymouth Sound,
A Hastings fishing-boat was wrecked,
And eight poor hands were drowned.
But turning from the o'er true tale,
Of Sunday's fatal storm,
See Jove and Mars calm down the gate,
And make it fair and warm.

Some Better News. Almost at the same time that the account of the fishing boat disaster reached Hastings, a report was received that the Hastings mackerel boats in the Devon and Cornish waters had fallen in "luck's way", six of them having caught fish enough to realize £660, and several others also doing well. During the next fortnight, the success continued in a modified form, at the end of which period the gratifying news came to hand that the Hastings fishing luggers, off Plymouth had shared generally in a good haul of mackerel. The writer does not know if the success was continuous, but in any case, as late as May 5th, the report was that more mackerel had been caught on the Devonshire coast in one week than was ever before known, the sums realized by this amounting to an average of £1,000 per day.

Home Catches. Also on the 6th and 6th of May, several shoals were seen off our own coast, and nets were soon put in requisition for their capture. Upwards of 2,000 were hauled on shore by means of a seine net, and were sold for £35. Some of the small boats succeeded in netting a considerable of the piscatory arrivals, thereby realizing from £6 to £20 per boat. The kettle [kiddle] nets at Bopeep, unfortunately did their work too well, so overladen were they that the meshes broke, and most of the fish escaped.

A Relief Fund. As might have been expected - notwithstanding the recent abnormal drain on the purses of the benevolent, a subscription was quickly set on foot for the distressed families of the nine drowned fishermen and by the first week in April had reached the sum of £400. The St. Leonards Gazette (as heretofore shown) was never backward in pleading the cause of charity in cases of real distress, and as associated with this new relief fund, and other calls fo help, the following extract from that journal of March 20th may be permitted:-

Sympathy for the Afflicted - the present has already proved itself an eventful year, and one that has opened the hearts and purses not only of the rich, but of all whose position in life places them beyond the pale of actual want. There has never been in our remembrance, so rapid a succession of calls upon the benevolence of the country in general and our own borough in particular, as that which recent events have given rise to. And how consoling it is that the floodgates of charity have opened with a power and [ 37 ]promptitude each time in proportions to the demand. We said truly at the beginning of the year, in anticipation of disasters of which we felt to have a presentiment that there would be many claims upon our benevolence, and that those claims would not be urged in vain, but that the fountains of sympathy, and relief for distressed and suffering humanity would flow freely, notwithstanding that the land then mourned for a good and great man who was no more. What has been the result? The first appeal was on behalf of the surviving sufferers by the Hartley Colliery accident to the fund of which the borough of Hastings contributed the munificent sum of 440l. The next appeal was on behalf of the widows and children of the unfortunate seamen lost in the "Tryall", the subscriptions to which, being now closed, are found to realise a sum of about £112. Then a subscription was set on foot for the Albert Memorial, and for which purpose a large sum has been already promised, notwithstanding that some want of unanimity exists on the matter.

And now again, before the hand of Charity has had time to recruit itself for further efforts, it is enlisted on behalf of the widows and families of the nine poor fishermen who fell victims to the ruthless storm at Plymouth. Something like £200 is already the response made to the appeal on their behalf, and we doubt not that this amount will be doubled in the course of a short time [It was exactly doubled in about 8 or 9 days after]. Of the sum already in hand; upwards of £59 has been handed to the Mayor, chiefly by strangers, some of whom may have purchased the Gazette, with its Visitors List; Lord Harry Vane has contributed £15; Mr. West has collected £50 in St. Leonards, and Mr. Campbell a similar amount in Hastings; about £25 has been handed over as the joint collection at the churches of All Saints and Holy Trinity; nearly £20 is supposed to have been realized by the exhibition of the "Battle of Hastings" painting at the Music Hall; and £10 or thereabouts is likely to have accrued from the concert given by the Mountfield Sacred Choral Society.

With respect to the enormous sum collected for the sufferers of the Hartley calamity - for, we learn that the total has now reached £70,000 - we had hoped that a portion of it would have been devoted to the relief of similar sufferers in Wales, or that the surplus would have formed a mendus for a general fund to be available in all future time for any similar purpose throughout the Kingdom.

From the announcement of the Lord Mayor of London that he was received and forwarded upwards of £20,000 for the Hartley widows and orphans, whilst he has only received a few hundred pounds for the relief of the sufferers of the accident at the Gethin Colliery[Notes 2], one cannot but be struck with the existence of almost a fashion even in (illegible text).

The Lord Mayor as compelled to announce that he will not receive any more subscriptions, so that we hope that the tide will turn a little towards the widows and children of Merthyr. We hoped that more sympathy had been [ 38 ]awakened for the sufferers of the later accident, and we think that - like ourselves - the public generally will be surprised at the extraordinary conduct of the committee of the Hartley-colliery fund in determining that no part of their abundant superfluity should be applied towards the alleviation of distress caused by the Gethin accident, but that the money collected and placed in their hands should form a permanent fund for the use of the two counties of Northumberland and Durham only. It was at one time currently reported that as the Hartley fund was assuming such unexpectedly gigantic proportions, the surplus would form the foundation of a permanent fund for similar disasters in any part of the Kingdom. It would indeed be a pity that two such grievous disasters should occur and pass away without producing some lasting effect in the better providing for the future.

It appears that upwards of a thousand lives are annually lost in collieries, and yet we are without any National Calamity Fund. We therefore earnestly hope that the Hartley Committee may yet be induced to re-consider their decision, and that the large surplus which they have may be handed over to a national committee, extending its benefits to all parts of the Kingdom.

Every mining district throughout the land has its tale of woe, and we again urge that the surplus should be disposed of as the majority of subscribers wish. If they were polled we feel assured they would be of our opinion.

The Herring Season. - As early as September the Hastings herring catchers who were fishing in distant waters were reported to have had some moderately good hauls, and as regards the "home voyage", after the October gales, herrings were caught in great abundance, several of the boats realised from £20 to £40 by the catch of fish in a single night. As many as 4½ lasts were landed by a few of the boats, proving thus a boon to the hard-toiling fishermen and the public; the former of whom stood in need of the treasure thus obtained. This outburst of success continued in a modified degree for some time, and during the first two or three weeks of November, many thousands of herrings were caught, much to the satisfaction of the fishery and the public.

Fires and Fires Alarms(sic)

On the 2th of July, and errand-boy, in closing the shop of Mr. A. Vidler, home decorator at Claremont, was supposed to have let fall a lucifer match or a spark from a candle, and in that way to have set fire to some article. The dense smoke arising therefrom alarmed the inmates to no small degree; but with the dextrous application of some pails of water, the flames were soon extinguished.

In the 3rd week of September (as already noticed under "Accidents and Fataities", Julia Brazier, 10 years of age, living in Waterloo passage, caught fire and died next day.

(The St. Leonards fires in 1862, are noted in Vol. 9)
[ 39 ]
[Notes 3]unpropitious weather which so frequently attended the regattas and flower shows of this locality was again triumphant on the 10th of September, the day selected for the Hastings and St. Leonards Horticultural Exhibition. As a consequence the show was postponed from the 10th (when the weather forecast for that day was "Still there comes a breezy air, with mist or showers; the night more fair) till the following day (when the forecast was "Electrict tokens now appear with average warmth for time of year", and a very fortunate postponement it was, the results being a day of delightfuly fine and warm weather, with an attendance at the show of fifteen hundred persons. The site selected for the display was the double enclosure in Warrior square, connected by a subterranean passage (as originally designed by Mr. Troupe), illuminated with devices and jets of gas; and it is doubtful whether, outside the St. Leonards Subscription Gardens (where the show had been frequently held) a more suitable and convenient spot could have been obtained. There were two bands engaged - the Cavalry band from Maidstone, to play on the upper lawn, and the Rifle Band (Kluckmner's) to perform on the lower enclosure. Altogether the scene was a gay and animative one; and, considering that an immense amount of labour devolved on Mr. W. Savery as the hon. sec. and a few other gentlemen, great praise was due to them for the attendant success. In the list of exhibitors, there was a noticeable absence of names that had figured at previous shows, but even with that drawn back the display of productions was above the average. Not the least noteworthy of the articles exhibited were twelve or more cases containing fruit and flowers modelled in wax by Mr. Slatter, of 6 Eversfield place, and which were pronounced by all who saw them to be marvellous imitations of the originals. Two specimens of these ingenious productions, after nearly forty years, are still in the view of the writer. The largest case represented a wild bank and consisted of blackberries, oak leaves, honeysuckles, foxgoves, wild roses, &c., and the smaller cases contained exquisite imitations of hops, lillies, pine apples, snow-drops, fuschias and Christmas roses. The modeller of these unique imitations was somewhat eccentric in his habits, and sometimes when showing them in private he would say "They call me a fool; so be it. I'm content". It may also be said to Mr. Slatter's credit that in displays of public loyalty, his house was almost invariably the best decorated.

Among the other presentations at the show (not for competition) were plates of apples and a design of cut flowers by V. B. Crake, Esq., grapes and peaches by T. Brassey, Esq., apple-melons and gree-house plants W. Lucas-Shadwell, Esq., four miniature fruit trees showing a new style of raising plants by H. R. Brandrain, Esq., cut flowers by Miss Robertson; and an ornamental garden by Mr. Miller, of 22 Warrior square. The successful competitors and awards of prizes must be omitted from this record. A noticeable feature in later times when the shows have been held in the Alexandra Park, even with a more than doubled population - is the comparatively meagre attendance of the [ 40 ]wealthy and fashionable community, the distance from their residences in the western portion of the borough, particularly in unfavourable or dubious weather - being considered too great; and the lack of funds from that cause having to be made up of evening fêtes, which, howsoever pleasurable as such, are not to the taste of aristocratic visitors of flower shows.

The Committee's Annual Report, which had been issued earlier in the year, stated that although there was a balance of £17, odd, due to the treasurer, the subscriptions had increased. The Committee regretted this their position of the society; but felt confident the balance would be reversed at the end of the year. The treasurer's balance against the society had been caused by the bad weather at the June exhibition, the increased value of prizes, and the freeing from the £8 a year liability of a marquee which was purchased in 1858, and which was now their property.

Hastings at the Exhibition

There were two excellent water-color paintings on view in the International Exhibition in which Hastings people would feel an interest. "David Cose" (wrote the Times) "who still affectionately writes junior after his name as if to keep alive the memory of his gifted father, has never done better work than in his 'East Cliff, Hastings' and, best, perhaps, of all, his 'Fairlight Mill, Sussex'".

An Exhibition Medal was awarded to Messrs. Rock and Son, of Hastings, for their improved sociable carriage, with convertible heads. The improvements exhibited in this carriage were applicable to their patented Dioropha and other carriages for which they obtained medals at London, in 1851 and at Paris in 1856.

Sudden Deaths and Inquests

Miss Anne Thwaites. On the 2nd of March, the Coroner held an inquest on the body of Miss Anne Thwaites, a maiden lady, who was found dead in bed by her sister, Mrs. John Bailey, of 25 George street. The deceased, who was 71 years of age, had been known to have been out of health, but not thought to be dangerously ill, had not complained, and when seen by her sister a few days before her death was regarded as being in better health than usual. Medical (or rather surgical) evidence was that death resulted from disease of the heart.

Several Sudden Deaths occurred during the week ending on Saturday Nov. 15th, and three of them within the period of two days. The said three deaths called for investigations under the direction of the Borough Coroner.

Catherine Chapman, house keeper to the Countess of Waldegrave, was the first. She died suddenly on Sunday morning, the 9th of November, while in the act of preparing breakfast. She was a native of Robertsbridge, was 56 years of age, and had only been in her Ladyship's service six weeks. She had previously lived at Mr. Foysters, and was supposed to have enjoyed good health. In a minute after complaining of pain, she dropped down sideways [ 41 ]and expired. A post mortem by Mr. Ashenden showed that this death was also from heart disease.

Mary Ann Fisher's was the next death. Deceased was the wife of Frederick Fisher, shoemaker of 1 Church Passage. She had been unwell for a few days from a supposed billious(sic) attack, and on Sunday evening was so ill that notwithstanding the procuring of medical advice, she died within a few hours. The deposition of surgeon D. H. Gabb, who made a post mortem examination, shewd that death had resulted from natural cause.

Ann O'Neil's was the third case. She was 23 years, and a daughter of Mr. O'Neil, the late constable at the Hastings Railway Station. On Monday, although previously inclined to sickness, she partook of a hearty dinner, shortly after which, while engaged in an altercation with her sister, she was seized with a fit which resulted in death. A post mortem showed that she had an enlarged liver, a full stomach, and a brain gorged with blood. The doctor's opinion was that the overloaded stomach and the excitement of the altercation had caused congestive apoplexy.

The fourth case was that of Mr. Charles Glyde, a milkman who also died suddenly. Deceased had, however, been attended by Mr. Ticehurst and an inquest was not deemed necessary.

Infirmary Matron

Miss Griffen, who had been housekeeper at the Foundling Hospital, London, was elected in December, out of 22 applicants, to the post of Matron to the Hastings, St. Leonards and East Sussex Infirmary.

Lectures at Hastings

Daniel Defoe was the subject of a lecture, delivered on the 13th of January in connection with the Mechanics' Institution, by the popular lecturer George Dawson. Mr. J. G. Womersley (president) being in the chair. There was a numerous audience who manifested their appreciation of the humorous and learned lecturer by the profoundest attention.

Useful Plants was the title of a lecture delivered on the 24th of February, by Mr. W. King, one of the honorary secretaries of the Mechanics' Institution. The lecture was of a very instructive character, illustrated by coloured drawings of the various plants to which the lecturer referred, and by a map of the world, the lecturer pointed out the different ranges in which the plants were to be found, the several heights in which those plants were grown, and which varied according to the climate of the locality.

The Millennial Rest or the World as it Will Be On this subject the Rev. Dr. Cumming delivered two lectures to excessively crowded audiences at the Market Hall on the 4th and 5th of March, the proceeds of which (per collection) were devoted to the funds of the Special Mission to Roman Catho[ 42 ]lics in Great Britain by the Protestant Reformation Society. The reverend gentleman commenced his first lecture by saying that the Society had ascertained that whilst throughout Europe the Roman Catholic system was rapidly on the decline, in one country alone, it was advancing in influence every day. It was not because there was any fear of political supremacy that it was thus made prominent, but because he believed there were in England two millions of individuals - victims of a great delusion - deeply to be pitied because they had lost the way to reason. ∴ It was with this view that he supported an institution which employed thirty or forty God-fearing laymen who were specially educated in the various points of the Romish controversy, to go amongst the deluded Romanists in this realm. . . . . Now, he believed that "a good time was coming" although he was not a prophet, as the newspaper had represented him to be, predicting the end of the world at a given month and year. He showed them the signs of the ages, the significance of dates, and the moral epochs of the evening twilight of the world's long and chequered day. And now he would endeavour to show that all was to culminate in happiness when the twilight came.
That twilight might have a very dark night, but it would be a very short one, and one which would be followed by a twilight whose sunrise would have no western declension at all. Everybody (illegible text) in a Millenium. The Latins wrote about it and Virgil sang it. The heathen believed in it, and the Christian believed in it, because the Scripture taught it. He (Dr. Cumming) had always said that on those points on which good men differed, and which were non-essentials, he spoke with the utmost carefulness and reserve. When he spoke of the atonement regeneration, and justification by faith, he did so with all the dogmatism. He could, possibly exert, but when was speaking of unfulfilled prophecy he would admit he might be wrong. Why? Because God had not shown so plainly the things which were to come to pass as He had shown them those which had passed and those which were required to teach men the way of redemption. He submitted to his hearers limits and dates and facts, and he asked them to infer as reasonable men, the construction, which appeared to be the most probable. He need hardly tell them that the Millenium meant a thousand years. The reverend gentleman then read and commented on verses 7 to 13 of Peter iii, remarking that he looked for a new heaven, not another heaven; a new eath, not another earth. If they turned to Isiah ix, 17, they could read "Behold I create new heavens and a new earth, and the former shall not be remembered nor come into mind;" and a feature in it shall be "The wolf and the lamb shall feed together, and the lion shall eat straw like a bullock, and dust shall be serpent's meat; they shalt not hurt nor destroy in all my holy mountain, saith the Lord." They would notice that as the previous economy - the antedeluvian - was cast in the waters of a desolating flood, so, say Peter, this present economy shall pass through a baptism, not 
[ 43 ]of water, but of fire, which shall neither annihilate nor extinguish, but shall purify and beautify till the desert shall rejoice and blossom as the rose. He would show them that this preliminary purifying was not merely what good men had asserted it to be, but it was even in accordance with the discoveries of modern science. The doctor next commented on the passage in Peter, the literal rendering of which was the "earth (illegible text) with fire." This fact, he said, was proved by geologists. In a conversation with Sir R. Murchison, he asked whether he was right in illustrating the passage by the statement the nearer the center of the earth was reached the more intense was the heat? Sir Roderick answered that if there was one fact established in geology, it was that of the existence of an intense internal heat beneath the crust of the earth. The Royal Society in London had made a calculation that the mean rate of temperature increased one degree of the thermometer at every 45 feet depth. At that rate, sixty miles below the surface of the earth everything would be in a state of intense fusion and incandescence. There were many points of evidence to show this. The Aberdeen granite was an illustration. It had assuredly passed out of a molten state, as was shown by its crystals and by the entire absence of fossils, which were only to be found in the upper strata. The probability was that the earth was a vast shell, full of the most terrible combustible materials. Sir David Brewster said that volcanoes were the Earth's safety valves; although but little thought of, it was a fact that they lived upon a crust of fossils with a core of internally burning fire. So true was that that Sir Charles Lyell, who was a man of authority in geological science, had said "When we consider the fusible nature of the elements of the earth and the facility with which its compounds may be decomposed, we might well be allowed to share the astonishment of Pliny, that a single day should pass without a universal conflagration".

Then he would ask, is the destruction of the Earth by the fire it contains internally to be expected according to prophecy? It seemed to him irresistible proved that the earth was to undergo a baptism of fire, but not by that baptism to be annihilated. Science would tell them there was no such thing as annihilation. The lecturer illustrated this by noticing the change of flax into a woven fabric, then into rag and paper, and next into smoke, but not one atom, he said was annihilated. The endless divisibility of matter was not felt by us, but were the eye sufficiently microscopic, even a small piece of wood might be seen to be divided endlessly. Hence it had be argued that a word spoken on earth never ceased, as its vibration circulated and spread through endless space. So philosopher Babbage had shown that by a touch of the ocean by an oar, the whole volume of the sea was disturbed. Trample on a blade of grass, and the vibration went through the whole earth. We did not hear it because our faculty of sound [ 44 ]was not delicate enough; but still, it was a fact. People generally believed in what was a gross mistake that there was something in the body, the earth, the air, the sea, so corrupt that annihilation was the only thing to which it ought to be subjected. Everything that was made six thousand years ago was marked by absolute and glorious perfection. But it was a material world. Adam and Eve were just as the beings of the present day, with this the only exception - that sin and mortality were not in them till they violated the law of the Creator, and brought death into the world. There was no reason, physiologically considered why a single individual should die. It had been admitted to him by the most accomplished physiologist, 80 years of age, that there was no reason in nature why man should die. He told this gentleman there was a moral law which accounted for it "The wages of sin is death, but the gift of God is eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord." the person referred to said it was a fact, but that; but that he was physiologist and not a Christian. But was did the sceptics researches teach them? - but that for sin having entered into the world, man might have lived for ever. Now, the instant that Christ came and the earth had undergone its last baptism of fire, he believed that literally this orb would appear amid the orbs of the universe, the most beautiful and the most intensely interesting of all. Dr. Cumming next referred to the "Essays and Reviews", and combatted the statement of the Rev. B. Wilson, that there were scientific errors in the Bible. The passage in Genesis "God stretched out the firmament" and another in Job, speaking of the sweet influences of the Pleiades" were especially dwelt upon. In references to those influences, the learned doctor remarked that it was now a generally accepted theory that Alcyone, one of the stars of the Pleiades was the centre of the stellar universe. He also reverted to the passage in Peter, "And the heavens shall pass away with great noise, and the elements shall melt with fervent heat." Had Peter written burn instead of melt, the chemists would have said he did not know science. But when he said melted, they knew he was perfectly right.

The lecturer then dwelt upon the vision of Heaven as beheld by John in the isle of Patmos. Having come to the period of the "first resurrection" he only wished to state the two theories of the Millenium were prevalent. One was held by certain divines, who alleged that the present Christian (illegible text) was to go on extending in greater beaty and radiance and influence till it was lost in the moontide of glory of a thousand years. They said that an extension of the gospel, the spread of missionary labours, the progress of literature and science were the instrumentalities with which it was to be brought about; that it was not an extinct economy, but was to be ushered in by a baptism of fire; by the resurrection from the dead of all the dead in Crhist that sleepeth; by a change of all the living that would then be found and who were believers; and that the Saviour would in some way - he knew not how - was to be 

References & Notes

  1. Brett would appear to have mis-heard Baldslow Road here - transcriber
  2. See Northern Mine Research Society for details - Transcriber
  3. There would appear to be some missing text here - Transcriber
  1. legerdemain = sleight of hand; manetic manipulator = hypnosis - Transcriber